Diversity and Discrimination with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 6 Chapter 2 Politics ||



Chapter 2, Class 6
Diversity and Discrimination
Dominant (प्रभावशाली) – Powerful or noticeable than other things, more important
Exploitation (शोषण) – making use of & deriving benefit from a resource
Narrow-minded – limited thinking
Self-esteem (आत्म सम्मान) – confidence in one’s own abilities
Bias (पक्षपात) – against one thing or person

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Differences
1.       There are eight major religions (धर्म) in the world.
2.       Every religion is practised in India.
3.       We have more than 1600 languages that are people's mother tongues (मातृ भाषा).
4.       Many cultures (संस्कृति) are followed by them
5.       All these terms referred to Differences
6.       Differences can be defined on the basis of comparison or classified

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1.       It means to judge other people negatively or create negative opinions (विचार) or see them as inferior (नीचा or वह जो पद या स्थान में कम हो) without actually knowing anything about them.
2.       E.g. Prejudiced can be about many things: people's religious beliefs, the colour of their skin, the region they come from, the accent (स्वर) they speak in, the clothes they wear etc
1.       A stereotype is a bunch (समूह) of traits (लक्षण) that is associated (जोड़ना) with all members of a specific social group.
2.       It influences (प्रभावित करना) our behavior & thinking skills i.e. how we determine facts (सच्चाई)
3.       E.g. girls are friendly, sensitive (नाजुक) & emotional, while boys are ambitious (महत्वाकांक्षी), tough & dominating
                       
             
Inequality and Discrimination
1.       Discrimination (भेदभाव) means treating people differently or negatively on grounds of age, disability, gender, income, nationality, colour or religion.
2.       Discrimination happens when people treat on the basis of prejudices (पूर्वाग्रह) or stereotypes (रूढ़िवादी).
3.       E.g. some people are not allowed to enter temples or schools, drink water from taps & wells but used by others

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On being discriminated against
1.       Some people do different kinds of work like teaching, carpentry, pottery, weaving, fishing, farming etc. to earn a livelihood (रोजगार).
2.       However, certain kinds of work are valued more than others.
3.       Activities like cleaning, washing, cutting hair, picking garbage (कूड़ा करकट) are seen as tasks that are of less value and people who do this work are seen as dirty or impure (अपवित्र).
4.       This belief is an important aspect of the caste system.
5.       In the caste system, communities/ groups of people were placed in a sort of ladder (सीढ़ी) where each caste was either above or below the other.
6.       Those who placed themselves at the top of this ladder called themselves upper caste and saw themselves as superior (श्रेष्ठ).
7.       The groups who were placed at the bottom of the ladder were seen as unworthy (अयोग्य) and called "untouchables (अछूत)".
                                

Fighting for Equality
1.       The struggle (संघर्ष) for freedom was also a fight for equal status in society.
2.       The underprivileged (सुविधा से वंचित) section wanted equal access (पहुँच) to all resources & opportunities.
3.       Women demanded education, respect & dignity (गौरव).
4.       Peasants (किसान) and tribals (जनजातीय) fought to release themselves from the grasp (पकड़) of the moneylender (साहूकार) and the high interest they were charged.
5.       The people who wrote down constitution were aware (जानकार) of the inequalities (ऊंचनीच) existing in the society.
6.       Many people like Dr B.R. Ambedkar had experience of discrimination.
7.       The constitution of India provides the following
·         Equal rights have been given to all without any discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, gender.
·         Untouchability is seen as a crime and has been legally abolished (समाप्त करना) by law.
·         People are free to choose the kind of work they wish to do.
·         All Indians are equal in the eyes of the law.
·         There is also provision of protection from any form of exploitation (शोषण). E.g. children below 14 years of age cannot be engaged in doing work & provided free education.
·         Since India is a secular (धर्म से संबंध रखनेवाला) country, everybody is free to follow the religion of their choice & celebrate (उत्सव मनाना) their festivals (त्यौहार).

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