Diversity with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 6 Chapter 1 Politics ||



Class 6 Chapter 1
Diversity
1.       Diversity (विभिन्नता) is the range of many people or things very different from each other
2.       India is a country of many diversities like cultures (संस्कृति) and traditions (रिवाज).
3.       We speak different languages (भाषा), have various (भिन्न-भिन्न) types of food, celebrate different festivals (त्यौहार), practise different religions (धर्म).
4.       Differences may be classified as Economic & Social differences
               

Economic Differences
1.       It creates differences in amount of money that people have.
2.       It leads to inequality (ऊंचनीच) and making some people rich and many poor.
Social differences – Caste system & gender bias (पक्षपात) are two major social differences
Caste system
1.       It divides India into many societies & became an evil (बुरा)
2.       Our Government made laws to show that all human beings are born equal & they should enjoy equal opportunities (सुविधा or मौक़ा) like Article 14 (Equality (समानता) before law & equal protection (बचाव) before law).
3.       But in many villages and cities, these laws are violated (तोड़ना or उल्लंघन करना).
Gender bias
1.       It means discrimination (भेदभाव) against the girl child
2.       She is treated (बर्ताव करना) like a burden (बोझ).
3.       Many villages and cities are not welcomed.
4.       Government made many laws like Article 15 (State shall not discriminate (भेदभाव) on basis of religion (धर्म), race (जाति), caste or birth of place) & Article 17 (abolition (समाप्ति) of Untouchability (छुआछूत))
             

Unity in diversity
1.       It was given by JL Nehru the phrase, "unity (एकता) in diversity (विभिन्नता)".
2.       Jawaharlal Nehru also mentioned in his book “The Discovery of India” about diversity.
3.       India's national anthem (गान), composed (रचना) by Rabindranath Tagore, is another expression of the unity of India.
                     

Rise in Mixed Influences
1.       It started due to the natural disasters (तबाही) like floods (बाढ़) & droughts (सूखा), wars, forced migration (To move from one place to other).
2.       A new area gave them new lifestyles & challenges & also mixed cultures (संस्कृति).
Influences of foreigners
1.       Many foreigners visited like Hieum Tsang, Vasco da Gama & Britishers & many others.
2.       They brought their culture & traditions with them.
3.       Their religions, languages & dresses were introduced here.
4.       When the British ruled India, women and men from different cultural, religious and regional backgrounds came together to oppose (विरोध करना) them
How do we explain Diversity?
1.       When the train, aeroplane, bus or car became a part of our lives, people travelled from one part of the world to another, in ships, on horses, on camels or on foot.
2.       Often (अक्सर), they went in search of new lands, or new places to settle in, or for people to trade with.
3.       So their languages, food, music and religions (धर्म) mixed, and it created new & different cultures (संस्कृति).
4.       Some historical (ऐतिहासिक) and geographical (भौगोलिक) factors influence the diversity of a region.
5.       We will study here life in two different parts of the country, Kerala and Ladakh
Ladakh
1.       It is a desert in the mountains in the eastern part of Jammu and Kashmir.
2.       Very little agriculture is possible here since this region does not receive any rain and is covered in snow (बर्फ).
3.       There are very few trees that can grow in the region.
4.       For drinking water, people depend on the melting (पिघलना) snow during the summer months.
5.       People here keep sheep and goats.
6.       The goats in this region are special because they produce pashmina wool & it is very costly.
7.       The people eat meat and milk products like cheese (पनीर) and butter (मक्खन).
8.       Each family owns some goats, cows and dzos (yak-cows).
9.       Being a desert did not mean that Ladakh did not attract its share of traders (व्यापारी).
10.   Buddhism reached Tibet via Ladakh which is also called little Tibet.
11.   Islam was introduced in this region & has more Muslim population live here.
12.   Ladakh has a very rich oral tradition (परम्परा) of songs and poems like Kesar Saga are performed and sung by both Muslims and Buddhists.
                   

Kerala
1.       It is surrounded by the sea on one side and hills on the other.
2.       A number of spices (मसाला) like pepper (काली मिर्च), cloves (लौंग) and cardamoms (इलायची) are grown on the hills.
3.       Spices made this region an attractive place for traders.
4.       Many Arab traders also came and settled down here.
5.       The Portuguese discovered the sea route to India from Europe when Vasco da Gama landed with his ship here.
6.       The fishing nets used here look exactly like the Chinese fishing nets and are called cheena-vala.
7.       Even the utensil (बरतन) used for frying is called the cheenachatti, and it is believed that the word cheen could have come from China.
8.       The fertile (उपजाऊ) land and climate are suited to growing rice and a majority of people here eat rice, fish and vegetables.


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