Globe Latitudes and Longitudes with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 6 Chapter 2 Geography ||


GLOBE: LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES
Globe – The spherical (गोलाकार) representation of the earth
Axis – An imaginary (काल्पनिक) line joining the two poles
Poles – end points of the axis
Equator – An imaginary line that divides the earth into two equal halves (आधे में)
Latitude – Imaginary lines parallel to the equator, running from west to east
Longitude – Imaginary lines drawn vertically from the North Pole to South Pole
Prime Meridian – the 0° longitude passing through Greenwich near London

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The Shape of the Earth
  1. Earth is slightly bulging (उभरा हुआ) at the equator & flattened at the Poles.
  2. It is called Geoid.
  3. The Polar diameter (12712 Km) & circumference (40000 Km)
  4. The equatorial diameter (12756 Km) & circumference (40090 Km)
  5. The earth rotates or spins (घूमना) upon an imaginary axis.
  6. It is inclined at an angle of 23.5 °
  7. This tilt (झुकना) is called the inclination of the earth’s axis.
  8. This inclination is always in same direction i.e. towards the pole star.
                   

IMPORTANT PARALLELS OF LATITUDES
Besides (के अलावा) the equator (0°), the North Pole (90°N) and the South Pole (90° S), there are four important parallels of latitudes–
1.       Tropic of Cancer (23½° N) in the Northern Hemisphere.
2.       Tropic of Capricorn (23½° S) in the Southern Hemisphere.
3.       Arctic Circle at 66½° north of the equator.
4.       Antarctic Circle at 66½° south of the equator.
                                      

HEAT ZONES OF THE EARTH
1.       It is divided into three types.
2.       The places & cities that lie in different heat zones have different climates (मौसम) because it receives different amount of heat.
Torrid Zone
1.       The word torrid means ‘hot’.
2.       All places located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn experience vertical rays of the sun twice in a year.
3.       This area, therefore, receives the maximum heat and is called the Torrid Zone.

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Temperate zone
1.       It is of two types – North temperate & South Temperate Zone
2.       These zones receive slanting (तिरछा or झुका हुआ) rays of the sun & receive less heat.
3.       North Temperate Zone lies between the tropic of cancer & Arctic Circle.
4.       South Temperate Zone lies between tropic of Capricorn & Antarctic Circle.
Frigid Zone
1.       The word frigid means ‘cold’
2.       Areas lying between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole in the Southern Hemisphere, are very cold or remain frozen (ठंडा or जमा हुआ) throughout the year.
3.       Therefore, its rays are always slanting (तिरछा or झुका हुआ) and provide less heat.

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Latitudes or Parallels
  1. Imaginary lines that run from west to east & are parallel to the Equator known as latitudes or parallels
  2. It is measured in degrees (°) & it is divided into 60 equal parts called minutes (‘).
  3. A minute is further divided into 60 equal parts called seconds (“).
  4. There are 90 parallels in the Northern hemisphere & 90 in the southern hemisphere.
  5. It is used to locate a place on the globe.
  6. Cities & towns that are near to the equator are called low latitudes
  7. Places near the poles are called high latitudes.
  8. The Equator is the longest parallel & it decreases towards the poles.
  9. The distance between any two parallels is 111 Km.
  10. Total Parallels are 181

Longitudes or Meridians (देशान्तर रेखा)
  1. It is an imaginary lines running from North Pole to the South Pole.
  2. The meridian passing through Greenwich (near London) is known as the 0° meridian.
  3. It is known as Prime Meridian.
  4. The Prime Meridian divides the globe into eastern & western hemisphere.
  5. There are 180 meridians in the East & 180 in the West sides of the Prime Meridian.
  6. Total 360 Longitudes or Meridians
  7. At the Equator, distance between two meridians is the greatest i.e. about 111 Km.
  8. It decreases towards the poles.
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Longitude & Time
  1. The Earth rotates through 360° of longitudes in 24 Hours.
  2. 1 hr = 15° & 1° = 4 min
  3. The longitude passing through Greenwich has been taken as the standard meridian by all the countries of the world.
  4. When it is midday or noon time in Greenwich, all the places along the Prime Meridian have noon time.

Why do we have Standard Time?
1.       The local time of places which are on different meridians is bound to differ.
2.       For example, it will be difficult to prepare a time-table for trains which cross several longitudes.
3.       In India, for instance, there will be a difference of about 1 hour and 45 minutes in the local times of Dwarka in Gujarat and Dibrugarh in Assam.
4.       In India, the time of Allahabad city which is situated at 82½° E (82° 30'E or 82.5° E longitude) is used as the standard time for the whole country.
5.       It is known as the Indian Standard Time (IST).
6.       E.g. 82.5° x 4 min = 330 min ahead of GMT or Greenwich Mean Time by 5 hrs + 30 min
                                  
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Time Zones
  1. Some Countries are very big E.g. USA, Canada & Russia.
  2. A large number of longitudes pass through these countries.
  3. Thus, one standard time for these countries is impossible for practical purposes.
  4. Therefore, International Prime Meridian Conference, held in 1884, agreed to divide whole world in 24 standard time zones of one hour each.
  5. Russia has 11 time zones & Canada has 6 time zones.
                            
International Date Line
  1. The 180° meridian is called the International Date Line.
  2. 180° E & 180° W is the same meridian.
  3. If we cross this line from west to east, we adjust our watches by adding a day.
  4. But we subtract a day when we cross the International Date Line from east to west.
                            

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