how when and where with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 8 Chapter 1 History ||

how when and where with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 8 Chapter 1 History ||



Class 8 chapter 1 History


Class 8 Chapter 1 History
How, When and Where
Urbanisation – The movement of people from villages to cities in search of a good quality life like education, health facility
Industrialisation – wide scale development of industries
Nationalism – Patriotic (देशभक्ति) feelings, principles (सिद्धान्त) or efforts (प्रयास)
Archive (लेखागार) – Place where government records & documents are preserved (सुरक्षित रखना)
Colonial – Possessing (अधिकार रखना) a colony or many colonies
Colonisation – policy of acquiring (हासिल करना) other countries as colonies
Periodisation – process of dividing history into periods

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How important are dates
1.       You may have heard people say, “I find history boring because it is all about memorizing dates.”  Is it true?
2.       There was a time when historians were debated (वाद विवाद करना) on dates.
3.       In these, they talked & wrote about the dates on which rulers were crowned, battles (युद्ध) were fought, the year he married, the year he had a child, the year he died, and the year the next ruler (शासक) succeeded to the throne (राज-गद्दी).
4.       For such events, specific dates can be determined and important.
5.       On the other side, we cannot determine dates or when it started
6.       E.g. watching someone sip (चुस्की लगाकर पीना) a cup of tea at a roadside tea stall you may wonder (जानने को उत्सुक होना) – when did people begin to drink tea or coffee?
7.       Looking out of the window of a train you may ask yourself – when were railways built and how did people travel long distances before the age of railways?
8.       Reading the newspaper in the morning you may be curious (उत्सुक) to know how people got to hear about things before newspapers began to be printed.
9.       Historians also focused on how people earned their livelihood (रोजी- रोटी), what they produced (पैदावार) and ate, how cities developed and markets came up, how kingdoms were formed and new ideas spread (फैलना), and how cultures and society changed.

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Which dates?
1.       Certain dates, around which we build up our story of the past, becomes important when we focus on a particular set of events as important.
2.       British historians wrote histories in India like the rule of each Governor- General was important.
3.       These histories began with the rule of the first Governor-General, Warren Hastings (in 1773), and ended with the last Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten.
4.       All the dates were linked to different personalities – to their activities, policies, achievements.

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How do we periodise?
1.       In 1817, James Mill published a book, named “A History of British India”.
2.       In this he divided Indian history into three periods – Hindu, Muslim and British.
3.       This periodisation came to be widely accepted.
4.       The main reason to do is that to capture (पकड़ना) the characteristics of a time, its central features as they appear to us.
5.       According to the mill, before the British came to India, there were Religious intolerance (असहनशीलता), caste superstitious (अंधविश्वासी) practices dominated (हावी होना) between Hindu and Muslim.
6.       British rule, Mill felt, could civilise (सभ्य) India.
7.       To do this it was necessary to introduce European manners (शिष्टता), arts (कला), institutions and laws in India.
8.       Except from British classification, historians have usually divided Indian history into ‘ancient’, ‘medieval’ and ‘modern’.
9.       Under British rule people did not have equality, freedom (आजादी) or liberty (मुक्ति).
10.   So that many historians refer to this period as ‘colonial’

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What is colonial?
1.       British came to conquer (जीतना) the country and establish their rule, subjugating (अधीन करना) local nawabs and rajas.
2.       They established control over the economy, society, collected revenue, bought the goods at low prices
3.       So when the subjugation of one country by another leads to these kinds of political, economic, social and cultural changes is called colonisation or
4.       Colonisation – policy of acquiring (हासिल करना) other countries as colonies

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Administration produces records
1.       One important source is the official records of the British administration.
2.       The British believed that the act of writing was important.
3.       Every instruction, plan, policy decision, agreement, investigation had to be clearly written up.
4.       Once this was done, things could be properly studied and debated.
5.       They set up record rooms attached to all administrative institutions.
6.       E.g. the village tahsildar’s office, the collectorate, the commissioner’s office etc

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National Archives of India
1.       It was established in New Delhi in the 1920s.
2.       Documents available here like governments orders, legal acts, letters, diaries of officials, Farmans and old books.
Surveys
1.       The British believed that to rule any country, it is required to know that country properly.
2.       Therefore, detailed maps of the entire country were prepared during the 19th century
3.       In the villages, revenue surveys were conducted to know the topography (भौगोलिक स्थिति), the soil quality, the flora (वनस्पति), the fauna (जीवजंतु), the local histories, and the cropping (फ़सल) pattern.
4.       From the end of the 19th century, Census (जनगणना) surveys were held every ten years.
5.       These surveys provided information on the size, castes, religions and occupation (कारोबार).

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What official records do not tell
1.       Official records mostly in the favour of the government & administrators and ignore the ideas, opinions (विचार), feelings, pain & happiness of the common people.
2.       Many foreigner authors such as Max Muller wrote about history & culture of India along with Indian philosophy.
3.       Many books that contain ideas or speeches of Nehru, Gandhiji and many other great leaders are very important.
4.       These books present the Indian perspective (दृष्टिकोण).
5.       Many newspapers were also published in India during this period to understand the views & opinions of the Indians.
6.       Leaders and reformers wrote to spread their ideas, poets and novelists wrote to express their feelings.
7.       All these sources, however, were produced by the educated people.
8.       These rarely capture the life of tribals, farmers, mine workers or poor people




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