Land Soil Water Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Resources notes Class 8 Chapter 2 Geography




Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources
Land
1.       Land is among the most important natural resources.
2.       It covers only about 30% of the total area of the earth’s surface
3.       The uneven distribution of population in different parts of the world is mainly due to different characteristics of land and climate.
4.       The rugged (ऊबड़ खाबड़) topography (भौगोलिक स्थिति), steep slopes (सीधी ढाल) of the mountains, desert areas, and thick forested areas are normally less populated.
5.       Plains and river valleys offer suitable land for agriculture.
6.       Hence, these are the densely populated areas of the world.

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Land Use
1.       Land is used for different purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads and setting up of industries.
2.       Such utilisation (प्रयोग) is called Land use.
3.       Land can also be classified on the basis of ownership as – private land and community land.
4.       Private land – It is owned (मालिक होना) by individuals (व्यक्तिगत)
5.       Community land – It is owned by the community (समाज) for common uses like collection of fodder (चारा), fruits, nuts or medicinal herbs (जड़ी बूटी).
6.       These community lands are also called common property resources.


Conservation of Land Resource
1.       Growing population and their demand has led to large scale destruction (विनाश) of forest cover and agriculture land has created a fear of losing this natural resource.
2.       It can be overcome (क़ाबू पाना) by
·         Afforestation & land reform (भूमि-सुधार)
·         Less use of chemical pesticide (कीटनाशक) and fertilisers (खाद)
·         Checks on overgrazing
·         Providing better irrigation facilities
·         Conserving soil & forest

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Landslides
1.       It is simply defined as the mass movement which displaces (स्थान बदलना) materials like rock, debris (मलबा) on the earth is called landslide
2.       It often occurs with natural calamities (संकट) like earthquakes (भूचाल), floods (बाढ़), heavy rainfall and volcanic (ज्वालामुखी) eruptions (विस्फोट).


              
Soil
1.       The thin layer of grainy (दानेदार) substance covering the surface of the earth is called soil.
2.       Soil is made up of organic matter, minerals and weathered rocks found on the earth.
3.       Weathering – The breaking up and decay of exposed rocks, by temperature changes, flowing rivers, frost (ठंढ) action, plants, animals and human activity
4.       Fine vegetables & animals remains (अवशेष) called humus, increase the fertility (उपजाऊ) of the soil


             
Factors of Soil Formation
1.       The process of soil formation is very slow
2.       It takes hundreds of years to make just one cm of soil
3.       The quality of soil differs from region to region in colour, texture (बनावट) and fertility (उपजाऊ).
4.       The following factors play an important role in the formation of soil
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Climatic Conditions
1.       It plays an important role in the formation of soil
2.       Distribution of rainfall and temperature decide the weathering of rocks and humus formation
Parent Rock Material
1.       The original rock from which the soil is formed is called parent rock.
2.       It determines colour, texture (बनावट), chemical properties, mineral content
Relief Features – Altitude (ऊंचाई) and slope (ढाल), determine accumulation (जमा होना) of soil
Humus
1.       It is the dead remains (अवशेष) of plants & animals.
2.       It provides organic matter to the soil & makes it fertile.
Time – It decides the thickness of the soil profile

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Soil Profile
1.       Soil develops in horizontal layers.
2.       The horizontal layers of soil are called soil horizons
Top soil (Horizon A)
1.       It is the topmost layer of the soil
2.       This layer is rich in humus & contains rotten (सड़ा हुआ) plants and animals
Subsoil (Horizon B)
1.       It is found below the topsoil
2.       It is made of silt (कीचड़), clay (मिट्टी), sand & some nutrients like minerals and iron oxides
3.       Rainwater which occurs on the surface of earth collects in this layer.
               

Rock Fragments (Horizon C)
This is the 3rd layer which is consist of weathered rocks.
Bedrock (Horizon D)
1.       It is the last layer of the soil profile.
2.       It is the parent rock
3.       It is a solid layer of unweathered rock
Degradation of Soil
1.       The removal of top soil is called soil erosion (कटाव).
2.       Due to erosion, soil loses its fertility
3.       Both human and natural factors can lead to degradation of soils.
4.       Natural factors of soil erosion are wind, running water, landslides and floods (बाढ़).
5.       Human factors are deforestation, overgrazing, over utilisation of land and overuse of chemical feritilisers (खाद) or pesticides (कीटनाशक) can cause depletion (कमी) of soil fertility.
                   

Soil Conservation
1.       It is the prevention (रोकना) of loss of the top most layer of the soil from erosion or prevention of reduced fertility caused by over usage, acidification, or other chemical soil contamination.
2.       Afforestation – More trees, shrubs (झाड़ी) and grasses should be planted.
3.       Checking overgrazing – It should be checked time to time as the land becomes exposed to rain and wind & fodder (पशुओं का चारा) should be grown as crop

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Rock dam
1.       Rocks are compiled (इकट्ठा करना) to slow down the flow of water and prevent (रोकना) soil loss by floods.
2.       Fertility of the soil can be regained by intensive manuring (खाद), using chemical fertilisers and crop rotation.
                

1.       It is very effective in conserving (सुरक्षित रखना) soil in hilly areas.
2.       In it, hill slopes are cut into terraces to create flat areas to grow crops.
3.       This method reduces the speed of flowing rainwater.
            

Crop Rotation
1.       The cultivation of two or more crops on the same piece of land each year at different times is called crop rotation.
2.       Due to this, adds nutrients to the soil & helps in pest control (कीट नियंत्रण).
Shelter belts
1.       In the coastal and dry regions, rows of trees are planted to reduce the speed of wind to protect soil
2.       These rows are called shelter belts.

Water
1.       Approximately, 71 % of the earth’s surface is covered with water.
2.       Only 3 % (70% - Glaciers & ice caps (Antarctica, Greenland and the mountainous regions) and 30% - ground water) of the total available water is a freshwater.
3.       Humans use huge amounts of water not only for drinking and washing but also in the process of production.
4.       Water for agriculture, industries, generating electricity through reservoirs of dams is the other usages.



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Problems of Water Availability
1.       Increasing population, rising demands for food, increasing urbanisation and rising standards of living are the major factors leading to shortages (कमी) in supply of fresh water.
2.       Most of the countries of Africa, West Asia, South Asia, western USA, north-west Mexico, parts of South America and entire Australia are facing shortages in fresh water supply.
3.       The existing resources of freshwater are either drying up or getting polluted.
4.       Water shortage may be a consequence (परिणाम) of variation in seasonal or annual precipitation or the scarcity (कमी) is caused by over-exploitation (अति उपभोग) and contamination (दूषित करना) of water sources.



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Conservation of Water Resources
1.       Even though water is a renewable resource, its overuse and pollution make it unfit for use.
2.       Discharge of untreated or partially treated sewage, agricultural chemicals and industrial effluents (liquid waste) in water bodies are major contaminants (दूषित पदार्थ).
3.       Some of the measures that can be taken for water conservation are –
·         Water harvesting should be done in both urban and rural areas to store rainwater.
·         Industries effluents should be treated before they are discharged into the water bodies.
·         Sprinkler (फव्वारा) & drip irrigation should be used.



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Natural Vegetation
1.       It is defined as the plants that grow naturally in an area.
2.       This growth depends upon the climate & relief features of an area.
3.       Vegetation and wildlife are valuable resources.
4.       Plants provide us with timber (लकड़ी), give shelter (शरण स्थान) to animals, produce oxygen we breathe, protects soils so essential for growing crops, help in storage of underground water, give us fruits, nuts, medicinal plants and also the paper that is so important for your studies.
 Wild life
1.      It includes animals, birds, insects (कीड़ा-मकोड़ा) as well as the aquatic life forms.
2.       They provide us milk, meat, hides (पशु की खाल) and wool.
3.       Insects like bees (मधुमक्खी) provide us honey which help in pollination (परागन) of flowers.
4.       The birds feed on insects and act as decomposers as well.
5.       Vulture (गिद्ध) due to its ability to feed on dead livestock (पशु) is an important bird and considered a vital cleanser of the environment.
6.       So animals big or small, all plays an important part in the ecosystem.



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Distribution of Natural Vegetation
1.       The growth of vegetation depends primarily on temperature and moisture.
2.       The major vegetation types of the world are grouped as forests, grasslands and scrubs (झाड़ी).
3.       In areas of heavy rainfall, huge trees may expand.
4.       As the amount of moisture decreases the size of trees and their density reduces.
5.       Short trees and grasses grow in the regions of having moderate rainfall
6.       Thorny (कांटेदार) shrubs and scrubs grow in dry areas of low rainfall
7.       Tundra vegetation of cold Polar Regions comprise of mosses and lichens (काई).
8.       Due to increasing population, large areas of forests have been cleared to grow crops.
9.       There is an urgent need to conserve forest cover



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Conservation of Natural Vegetation
1.       Forests are our natural wealth.
2.       Plants give shelter to the animals and together they maintain the ecosystem.
3.       Human beings have destroyed the natural vegetation for their greed (लालच).
4.       Deforestation, soil erosion, constructional activities, forest fires, tsunami and landslides are some of the factors which responsible for extinction (लुप्त होना) of these resources.
5.       Some important ways to conserve it – protection of forest reserves, afforestation, protection of forest from forest fires, awareness programmes of environment or Van Mohatasava at school, state and national level
Conservation of Wildlife
1.       Many species (प्रजाति) have become endangered (खतरे में डालना) and some are on the verge (कगार) of extinction.
2.       Major factors responsible for the decline in the some species like deforestation, constructional activities, poaching (शिकार).
3.       The animals are poached for collection and illegal trade of hides (खाल), skins, nails, teeth, horns (सींग) & feathers (पंख).
4.       These can be conserved (सुरक्षित रखना) by increasing awareness.
5.       National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves are made to protect our natural vegetation and wildlife.
6.       Many countries have passed laws against the trade as well as killing of birds and animals.
7.       In India, killing lions, tigers, deers, great Indian bustards and peacocks is illegal.



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Note – An international convention CITES has been established that lists several species of animals and birds in which trade is prohibited (रोक लगाना).
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments.
Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected.
Bears, dolphins, cacti, corals, orchids and aloes are some examples.







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