Physical features of India with notes in hindi || Class 9 Chapter 2 Geography ||

Class – 9, Chapter -2
1.       India is a vast (विशाल) country with varied (भिन्न-भिन्न) landforms.
2.       If you live in the plains you are familiar with the vast stretches of plain land.
3.       If you live in hilly region, the rugged (खुरदरा) terrain (इलाक़ा) with mountains and valleys are common features.
4.       Our country has all major physical features of the earth i.e. mountains, plains, deserts, plateaus and islands.
5.       How these physical features have been formed let’s understand
6.       some rocks are very hard like marble used for making the Taj Mahal & some are very soft like soap stone which is used in making talcum powder.
7.       The colour of soil varies from one place to the other because soil is formed out of different types of rocks.
8.       India is a large landmass formed during different geological periods like number of processes such as weathering, erosion and deposition.
9.       Earth scientists have attempted to explain the formation of physical features with the help of some theories like “Theory of Plate Tectonics”.
10.   According to this theory, the crust (upper part) of the earth has been formed out of 7 major and some minor plates.
11.   The movement of the plates results in the folding, faulting and volcanic activity.
12.   Broadly, these plate movements are classified into three types.
13.   While some plates come towards each other and form convergent boundary.
14.   Some plates move away from each other and form divergent boundary.
15.   In the event of two plates coming together they may either collide (टकराना) and crumble (टुकड़े टुकड़े करना), or one may slide under the other.
16.   At times, they may also move horizontally past each other and form transform boundary.
17.   The movement of these plates has changed the position and size of the continents over millions of years.
18.   The oldest landmass, (the peninsula part), was a part of the Gondwana Land.
19.   The Gondwana Land included India, Australia, South America, South Africa & Antartica as on single Land mass.
20.   The convectional currents split (विभाजित करना) the crust into a number of pieces, thus leading to the drifting of the Indo-Australian plate after being separated from the Gondwana land, towards north.
21.   The northward drift resulted in the collision (टकराव) of the plate with the much larger Eurasian Plate.
22.   Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated (इकठ्ठा करना) in the geosyncline known as the Tethys were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and Himalaya.
23.   The Himalayan uplift out of the Tethys sea and go down (नीचे उतरना) of the northern flank (किनारा) of the peninsular plateau resulted in the formation of a large basin (जलाशय).
24.   With the time this depression, gradually got filled with deposition of sediments by the rivers flowing from the mountains in the north and the peninsular plateau in the south.
25.   A flat land of extensive alluvial (जलोढ़) deposits led to the formation of the northern plains of India.
26.   The land of India displays great physical variation.
27.   The Himalayas and the Northern Plains are the most recent landforms.
28.   The whole mountain system of Himalaya represents a very youthful topography (भौगोलिक स्थिति or स्थलाकृति) with high peaks, deep valleys (घाटी) and fast flowing rivers.
29.   The peninsular plateau is composed (बनाना) of igneous and metamorphic rocks with gently (धीरे-धीरे) rising hills and wide valleys.

Do you Know?

1.       Most volcanoes and earthquakes in the world are located at plate margins, but some do occur within the plates.
2.       Gondwanaland: It is the southern part of the ancient super continent Pangea with Angara Land in the northern part.
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The physical features of India can be grouped under the following categories.
(1) The Himalayan Mountains
(2) The Northern Plains
(3) The Peninsular Plateau
(4) The Indian Desert
(5) The Coastal Plains
(6) The Islands
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The Himalayan Mountains
1.       The Himalayas are the young and fold mountains stretch over the northern borders of India.
2.       These mountain ranges run in a west-east direction from the Indus to the Brahmaputra.
3.       The Himalayas represent the highest and one of the most rugged (खुरदरा) mountain barriers (रुकावट) of the world.
4.       The length of the Himalayas are 2,400 Km.
5.       Their width (चौड़ाई) varies from 400 Km in Kashmir to 150 Km in Arunachal Pradesh.
6.       The altitudinal (ऊँचाई) variations are greater in the eastern half than those in the western half.
7.       The Himalaya consists of three parallel ranges in its longitudinal extent – Himadri, Himachal & Shiwaliks.
8.       A number of valleys (घाटी) lie between these ranges.
9.       The northern most range is known as the Great or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri’.
10.   It has the highest peaks with an average height of 6,000 metres.
11.   The folds of Great Himalayas are asymmetrical in nature.
12.   The core of this part of Himalayas is composed of granite.
13.   The range lying to the south of the Himadri forms the most rugged (खुरदरा) mountain system and is known as Himachal or lesser Himalaya.
14.   The altitude (ऊँचाई) varies between 3,700 and 4,500 metres and the average width is of 50 Km.
15.   While the Pir Panjal range forms the longest and the most important range, the Dhaula Dhar and the Mahabharat ranges are also important ones.
16.   This range consists of the famous valley of Kashmir, the Kangra and Kullu Valley in Himachal Pradesh.
17.   This region is well known for its hill stations.
18.   The outer most range of the Himalayas is called the Shiwaliks.
19.   They extend over a width of 10-50 Km and have an altitude varying between 900 and 1100 metres.
20.   The longitudinal valley lying between lesser Himalaya and the Shiwaliks are known as Duns.
21.   Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun and Patli Dun are some of the well-known Duns.
22.   Besides the longitudinal divisions, the Himalayas have been divided on the basis of regions from west to east.
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23.   These divisions have been demarcated (सीमांकन करना) by river valleys.
24.   E.g., the part of Himalayas lying between Indus and Satluj has been traditionally known as Punjab Himalaya but it is also known regionally as Kashmir and Himachal Himalaya from west to east respectively.
25.   The part of the Himalayas lying between Satluj and Kali rivers is known as Kumaon Himalayas.
26.   The Kali and Tista rivers demarcate the Nepal Himalayas and the part lying between Tista and Dihang rivers is known as Assam Himalayas.
27.   The Brahmaputra marks the eastern most boundaries of the Himalayas.
28.   Beyond (के परे) the Dihang gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply to the south and spread along the eastern boundary of India.
29.   They are known as the Purvachal or the Eastern hills and mountains.
30.   The Purvachal comprises the Patkai hills, the Naga Hills, Manipur hills and the Mizo hills.

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Find Out

1.       The names of the glaciers and passes that lie in Great Himalayas
Glaciers in the Great Himalayas — Gangotri, Chaturangi, Bhagirathi, Kharak, Satopanth, Kamet, Milam and Pindari.
Passes in the Great Himalayas — Karakoram pass, Shipkila pass, Nathula, Bomdila pass.
2.       The name of the states where highest peaks are located
Mountain peaks - States
Kanchenjunga - Sikkim
Nanga Parbat - Jammu and Kashmir
Nanda Devi - Uttarakhand
Kamet - Uttarakhand
Namcha Barwa - Assam
3.       Location of Mussoorie, Nainital, Ranikhet from your atlas and also name the state where they are located - All the three towns are in the state of Uttarakhand in the range called lesser Himalaya or Himachal.

The Northern Plain
1.       These lie to the south of the Himalayas & are also called the Indo Gangetic Plains.
2.       The northern plain has been formed by the 3 major river systems, namely– the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries.
3.       This plain is formed of alluvial soil.
4.       The deposition of alluvium soil from the foothills of the Himalaya over millions of years formed this fertile (उपजाऊ) plain.
5.       It spreads over an area of 7 lakh sq. km.
6.       The plain being about 2400 Km long and 240 to 320 Km broad
7.       The rivers coming from northern mountains are involved in depositional work.
8.       In the lower course, due to light slope (ढाल), the speed of the river decreases which results in the formation of riverine islands.
9.       The rivers in their lower course divide into numerous channels due to the deposition of silt (पानी के बहाव से लायी हुई मिट्टी, रेत या कीचड़) .
10.   These channels are known as distributaries.

11.   The Northern Plain is broadly divided into 3 sections.
12.   The Western part of the Northern Plain is referred to as the Punjab Plains.
13.   Formed by the Indus and its tributaries, the larger part of this plain lies in Pakistan.
14.   The Indus and its tributaries–the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj.
15.   River Indus originates (निकलना) beyond in the Himalayas, near lake Mansarovar & drains (बह जाना) into Arabian Sea.
16.   This section of the plain has more number of doabs.
17.   The Ganga plain extends (फैलना) between Ghaggar and Teesta rivers.
18.   It is spread over the states of North India, Haryana, Delhi, U.P., Bihar, partly Jharkhand and West Bengal to its East & also in Assam lies the Brahmaputra plain.
19.   The northern plains are generally described as flat land with diverse (अनेक) relief features.
20.   According to the relief features, the Northern plains can be divided into 4 regions – Bhabar, Terai, Bhangar & Khadar.
21.   The rivers, after descending (नीचे उतरना) from the mountains deposit pebbles (कंकड़) in a narrow belt of about 8 to 16 km in width lying parallel to the slopes of the Shiwaliks.
22.   It is known as bhabar.
23.   All the streams (पानी का प्रवाह) disappear in this bhabar belt.
24.   South of this belt, the streams and rivers re-emerge (दुबारा दिखना) and create a wet (गीलापन), swampy (दलदली) and marshy (कीचड़दार) region known as terai.
25.   This was a forested region full of wildlife (वन्य जीव-जंतु).
26.   The forests have been cleared to create agricultural land.
27.   Locate Dudhwa National Park in this region.
28.   The largest part of the northern plain is formed of older alluvium.
29.   They lie above the flood plains of the rivers & this part is known as bhangar.
30.   The soil in this region contains calcareous (चूनेदार) deposits locally known as kankar.
31.   The newer, younger deposits of the flood plains are called khadar.
32.   They are renewed almost every year and so are fertile & good for agriculture.

The Peninsular Plateau
1.       It lies to the south of the Northern Plains & this area is triangular in shape.
2.       The Peninsular plateau is a tableland composed (बनाना) of the igneous and metamorphic rocks & average height is from 600 m to 900 m.
3.       It was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land and thus, making it a part of the oldest landmass.
4.       River Narmada divides it into 2 different parts - the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.
5.       The part of the peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada river covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands.
6.       The Vindhyan range is bounded by the Central Highlands on the south and the Aravalis on the northwest.
7.       The further westward extension (फैलाव) gradually merges (मिलना) with Rajasthan.
8.       The flow of the rivers draining this region, namely the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and Ken is from southwest to northeast.
9.       The Central Highlands are wider (चौड़ा) in the west but narrower (सिकुड़ना) in the east.
10.   The eastward extensions of this plateau are locally known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand.
11.   The Chotanagpur plateau marks the further eastward extension, drained by the Damodar River.

12.   The Deccan Plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river Narmada.
13.   The Satpura range in the north while the Mahadev, the Kaimur hills and the Maikal range from its eastern extensions
14.   An extension of this Plateau is also visible in the northeast– locally known as the Meghalaya and Karbi-Anglong Plateau.
15.   It is separated (अलग होना) by a fault from the Chotanagpur Plateau.
16.   Three important hill ranges from the west to east are the Garo, the Khasi and the Jaintia Hills.

17.   In Hindi ghats means “river landing stairs” or “mountain pass”
18.   The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats mark the western and the eastern edges of the Deccan Plateau respectively.
19.   Western Ghats are continuous lie parallel to the western coast & can be crossed through passes only.
20.   Famous Ghats - Thal, Bhor and the Pal Ghats
21.   The Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats.
22.   Their average elevation (ऊँचाई) is 900– 1600 metres of Western Ghats & 600 metres of the Eastern Ghats.
23.   The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and irregular and dissected (काटना) by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.
24.   The highest peaks of Western Ghats include the Anai Mudi (2,695metres) and the Doda Betta (2,637 metres).
25.   Mahendragiri (1,501 metres) is the highest peak in the Eastern Ghats.
26.   Shevroy Hills and the Javadi Hills are located to the southeast of the Eastern Ghats.
27.   Famous hill stations of Udagamandalam, popularly known as Ooty
28.   One of the distinct features of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area known as Decean Trap.
29.   This is of volcanic origin hence the rocks are igneous.

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The Indian Desert
1.       The Indian desest lies towards the western margins (किनारा) of the Aravali Hills.
2.       It is covered with sand dunes (रेत का टीला).
3.       This region receives very low rainfall below 150 mm per year.
4.       It has arid (सूखा) climate with low vegetation (वनस्पति) cover.
5.       Streams (नदी) appear during the rainy season.
6.       Soon after they disappear into the sand as they do not have enough water to reach the sea.
7.       Luni is the only large river in this region.
8.       Barchans (crescent shaped dunes) cover larger areas but longitudinal dunes (रेत का टीला) become more important near the Indo-Pakistan boundary.
The Coastal Plains
1.       The western coast lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, is a narrow (सिकुड़ना) plain.
2.       It consists of 3 sections.
3.       The northern part of the coast is called the Konkan (Mumbai – Goa), the central stretch - Kannad Plain while the southern stretch - Malabar Coast.
4.       The plain along the Bay of Bengal are wide and in 2 levels.
5.       In the northern part, it is referred to as the Northern Circar, while the southern part is known as the Coromandal Coast.
6.       Large rivers such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri have formed extensive delta on this coast.
7.       Lake Chilika is an important feature along the eastern coast.

The Islands
1.       Our country has also two groups of islands.
2.       Lakshadweep Islands lies close to the Malabar Coast of Kerala.
3.       This group of islands is composed of small coral islands.
4.       Earlier they were known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive.
5.       In 1973 these were named as Lakshadweep. It covers small area of 32 sq km.
6.       Kavaratti Island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep.
7.       This island group has great diversity of flora (पेड़ पौधे) and fauna (जीवजंतु).
8.       The Pitli Island – uninhabited ( बसा हुआ), has a bird sanctuary.
9.       There are 2nd Andaman (North) and Nicobar (South) islands.
10.   They are bigger in size and are more numerous (बहुत से) and scattered (बिखरा हुआ).
11.   There is great diversity of flora (पेड़ पौधे) and fauna (जीवजंतु) in this group of islands too.
12.   These islands lie close to equator and experience equatorial climate and have thick forest cover.
13.   India’s only active volcano is found on Barren Island in Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands.
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