The French Revolution with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 9 Chapter 1 History ||

The French Revolution with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 9 Chapter 1 History ||



Chapter 1, Class 9, History
The French Revolution
1.       On the morning of 14 July 1789, the city of Paris was in a state of alarm (आतंक का माहौल).
2.       The king had commanded troops (फौज) to move into the city.
3.       Rumours (अफवाह) spread (फैलना) that he would soon order the army to open fire (गोली चलाना) upon the citizens.
4.       Some 7,000 men and women gathered (इकठ्ठा होना) in front of the town hall and decided to form a peoples’ militia (नागरिक सेना).
5.       They entered forcely into government’s buildings in search of arms (हथियार).
6.       Finally, a group of several hundred people marched (कूच करना) towards the eastern part of the city and broke the fortress (किला)-prison (क़ैदख़ाना), the Bastille, where they hoped to find ammunition (गोला-बारूद) in large quantity.
7.       In the armed fight, the commander of the Bastille was killed and the prisoners (क़ैदी) released (छुड़ाना) – though there were only 7 of them.
8.       Yet the Bastille was hated by all, because of the despotic (तानाशाही) power of the king.
9.       The fortress was demolished (नष्ट करना) and its stone fragments (टुकड़ा) were sold in the markets.
10.   After that days, saw more rioting (दंगे) both in Paris and the countryside (ग्रामीण क्षेत्र)
11.   Most people were protesting (विरोध करना) against the high price of bread.
12.   Much later, when historians looked back upon this time, they saw it as the beginning of a chain of events that led to the hanging (फांसी देना) of the king in France, though most people did not expect this result.
French Society during the Late Eighteenth Century
1.       In 1774, Louis XVI of the Bourbon family of kings throned (राजसिंहासन पर बैठाना) of France.
2.       He was 20 years old and married to the Austrian princess Marie Antoinette.
3.       Upon his accession (राज्याभिषेक) the new king found an empty (ख़ाली) treasury (ख़ज़ाना).
4.       Long years of war had destroyed (नष्ट करना) the financial resources of France.
5.       There was also the cost of maintaining an extravagant (फजूल खर्च) court at the vast palace of Versailles.
6.       Under Louis XVI, France helped the 13 American colonies to gain their independence from the common enemy, Britain.
7.       The war added more than a billion livres to a debt (कर्ज) that had already risen to more than 2 billion livres.
8.       Lenders (कर्ज देनेवाला), who gave the state credit (उधार), now started to charge 10 % interest on loans.
9.       So the French government was obliged (मज़बूर) to give huge amount of interest from budget.
10.   To fulfill its regular expenses, like cost of maintaining an army, the court, running government offices or universities, the state was forced to increase taxes.
11.   Yet even this step was not sufficient.
12.   French society in the 18th century was divided into 3 estates and only members of the 3rd estate paid taxes.
13.   The term Old Regime (शासन) is usually used to describe the society and institutions of France before 1789.
14.   Peasants (किसान) made up about 90 % of the population.
15.   However, only a small number of them owned (स्वामी होना) the land they cultivated (खेती करना)
16.   About 60 % of the land was owned by nobles (कुलीनठाकुर), the Church and other richer members of the third estate.
17.   The members of the first two estates (the clergy (पादरी लोग) and the nobility) enjoyed some special rights by birth.
18.   The most important of these was exemption (छूट) from paying taxes to the state.
19.   The nobles further enjoyed some special rights like collecting feudal (जागीर संबंधी) tax from peasants.
20.   Peasants were obliged (मज़बूर) to give services to the lord like to work in his house and fields – to serve in the army or to participate in building roads.
21.   The Church too took taxes called tithes (धार्मिक कर) from the peasants.
22.   These included a direct tax, called taille, and a number of indirect taxes which were taken on the everyday consumption (उपयोग) like salt or tobacco.
23.   The burden of financing activities of the state through taxes was taken by the third estate alone.
The Struggle to Survive
1.       The population of France increased from about 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789.
2.       This led to a rapid (तेज़) increase in the demand for food grains (अनाज).
3.       But Production of grains (अनाज) could not increase with the demand.
4.       So the price of bread which was the important diet of the majority increased rapidly.
5.       Most workers were employed as labourers (मजदूर) in workshops whose owner (मालिक) fixed their wages (तनख़्वाह).
6.       But wages did not increase with the rise in prices.
7.       So the gap between the poor and the rich widened.
8.       Things became worse (खराब) whenever drought (सूखा) reduced (कम) the harvest (फसल).
9.       This led to a subsistence (जीविका) crisis (संकट), something that occurred frequently (अक्सर) in France during the Old Regime (शासन).

Subscribe My You Tube channel- Competitive World Knowledge
To get the videos FOR UPSC, State PCS, SSC CGL, Bank PO, RBI,...
Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science


A Growing Middle Class Envisages an End to Privileges
1.       In the past, peasants and workers had participated in revolts against increasing taxes and food scarcity.
2.       But they did not have means (साधन) and programme to bring about a change in the social and economic order.
3.       This responsibility had taken within the 3rd estate that had become prosperous (समृद्ध) and had access to education and new ideas.
4.       In the 18th century, the emergence of new social groups i.e. middle class, who earned their wealth through an expanding overseas trade and from the manufacture of goods like woolen and silk textiles that were either exported or bought by the richer society.
5.       Besides (के अलावा) merchants and manufacturers, the 3rd estate included lawyers or administrative officials.
6.       All of these were educated and believed that no group in society should be special rights by birth.
7.       They believed that a person’s social position must depend on his merit (योग्यता).
8.       These ideas for a society like freedom, equal laws and opportunities for all, were put forward by philosophers such as John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau.
9.       In his Two Treatises of Government, Locke disproved (खंडन करना) the doctrine (सिद्धांत) of the divine (दैवी) and absolute right of the monarch (राजा).
10.   Rousseau gave idea to form of government based on a social contract between people and their representatives.
11.   In The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu advised a division of power within the government between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary.
12.   This model of government was put into force in the USA, after the 13 colonies declared their independence from Britain.
13.   The ideas of these philosophers were discussed mostly in salons and coffee-houses and spread among people through books and newspapers.
14.   These were often read aloud (ज़ोर से) in groups for the benefit of those who could not read and write.
15.   The news that Louis XVI planned to impose (थोपना) further taxes, due to this, the state generated anger and protest against the system of privileges (विशेष अधिकार).

Subscribe My You Tube channel- Competitive World Knowledge
To get the videos FOR UPSC, State PCS, SSC CGL, Bank PO, RBI,...
Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science

The Outbreak of the Revolution
1.       Louis XVI had to increase taxes.
2.       In France of the Old Regime (शासन) the monarch did not have the power to impose (लगाना) taxes according to his will (इच्छा) alone.
3.       Rather he had to call a meeting of the Estates General which would then pass his proposals for new taxes.
4.       The Estates General was a political body to which the 3 estates sent their representatives.
5.       Only the monarch (राजा) alone could decide when to call a meeting & last time it was done in 1614.
6.       On 5 May 1789, Louis XVI called an assembly to pass proposals for new taxes.
7.       A big hall in Versailles was decorated for the meeting.
8.       The first and second estates sent 300 representatives each, who were seated in rows facing each other on two sides, while the 600 members of the third estate had to stand at the back.
9.       The third estate was represented by its more prosperous (समृद्ध) and educated members.
10.   Peasants, artisans and women were no entry to the assembly.
11.   However, their grievances (कष्ट) and demands were listed in some 40,000 letters which the representatives had brought with them.
12.   Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote.
13.   This time too Louis XVI was determined to continue the same practice.
14.   But members of the third estate demanded that voting now be done by each member would have one vote.
15.   This was the democratic principles given by philosophers like Rousseau in his book The Social Contract.
16.   When the king rejected this proposal, members of the third estate walked out of the assembly in protest (विरोध करना).
17.   On 20 June they assembled (इकट्ठा होना) in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles.
18.   They declared a National Assembly and swore (शपथ लेना) to make constitution (संविधान) for France that would limit the powers of the monarch.
19.   They were led by Mirabeau and Abbé Sieyès.
20.   Mirabeau was born in a noble family but was convinced to end up the special rights.
21.   Abbé Sieyès, originally a priest (पादरी), wrote an influential (प्रभावशाली) pamphlet called ‘What is the Third Estate’?
22.   A severe winter had meant a bad harvest (फ़सल); the price of bread increased, often bakers (डबल रोटी बनाने वाला) exploited (शोषण करना) the situation and collected supplies.
23.   After spending hours in long queues (लाइन) at the bakery, crowds of angry women forcely entered into the shops.
24.   At the same time, the king ordered troops (फौज) to move into Paris.
25.   On 14 July, the angry crowd destroyed the Bastille.
26.   In the countryside rumours (अफवाह) spread that the king had hired group of dacoits (डाकू) who were on their way to destroy the ripe (पक्का) crops
27.   Due to fear, peasants in several districts seized (ज़ब्त करना) hoes (फावड़ा) and pitchforks (काँटेदार पंजा) and attacked the fort.
28.   They looted collected grain and burnt down documents containing records of taxes.
29.   A large number of nobles fled (भागना) from their homes, many of them migrating to neighbouring countries.
30.   Finally, Louis XVI accepted the National Assembly and their demands to make constitution.
31.   On the night of 4 August 1789, the Assembly passed an order to abolishing (समाप्त करना) the feudal system and tax system.
32.   Members of the clergy (पादरी वर्ग) too were forced to give up (त्यागना) their privileges (विशेष अधिकार).
33.   Tithes were abolished and lands owned by the Church were seized (ज़ब्त करना).
34.   As a result, the government acquired (प्राप्त करना) assets worth at least 2 billion livres.
France Becomes a Constitutional Monarchy
1.       The National Assembly completed the draft of the constitution in 1791.
2.       Its main object was to limit (सीमित करना) the powers of the monarch.
3.       Now the power divided among different institutions – the legislature, executive and judiciary.
4.       After this, France became a constitutional monarchy.
5.       Fig. 7 explains how the new political system worked.
6.       To make law of the Constitution of 1791, the power given to the National Assembly, which was indirectly elected?
7.       That is, citizens voted for a group of electors (50,000 men), who in turn chose the Assembly (745 member).
8.       Not all citizens had the right to vote.
9.       Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s (मजदूरी) wage (तनख़्वाह) were given the status of active citizens, & they had the right to vote.
10.   The remaining men and all women were classed as passive (rights not given to vote) citizens.
11.   To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the Assembly, a man had to belong to the highest taxpayers.
12.   The Constitution began with a Declaration (घोषणा) of the Rights of Man and Citizen.
13.   Rights such as the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law, were established as ‘natural and inalienable (जो अलग किया  जा सके)’ rights, that is, they belonged to each human being by birth and could not be taken away.
14.   It was the duty of the state to protect (बचाना) each citizen’s natural rights.

Subscribe My You Tube channel- Competitive World Knowledge
To get the videos FOR UPSC, State PCS, SSC CGL, Bank PO, RBI,...
Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science
France Abolishes Monarchy and Becomes a Republic
1.       The situation in France continued to be tense (तनापूर्ण) many years.
2.       Although Louis XVI had signed the Constitution, he entered into secret negotiations (समझौता) with the King of Prussia.
3.       Rulers of other neighbouring countries too were worried.
4.       They made plans to send troops (सेना) to control the events after the 1789.
5.       Before this could happen, the National Assembly voted in April 1792 to declare war against Prussia and Austria.
6.       Thousands of volunteers gathered (इकठ्ठा होना) from the provinces to join the army.
7.       Among the patriotic (देशभक्त) songs they sang was the Marseillaise, composed (लिखना) by the poet Roget de L’Isle.
8.       It got name Marseillaise as it was sung for the first time by volunteers from Marseilles as they marched into Paris.
9.       The Marseillaise is now the national anthem (गान) of France.
10.   The revolutionary wars brought losses and economic difficulties to the people.
11.   While the men were in the wars, women were left to do tasks of earning a living and looking after their families.
12.   Large sections of the population were convinced that the revolution had to be carried further, as the Constitution of 1791 gave political rights only to the richer sections of society.
13.   Political clubs became an important point for people to discuss government policies and plan their own forms of action.
14.   The most successful clubs was Jacobins.
15.   Women too, who had been active throughout this period, formed their own clubs.
16.   The members of the Jacobin club included small shopkeepers, artisans such as shoemakers, pastry cooks, watch-makers, printers, as well as servants and daily-wage workers.
17.   Their leader was Maximilian Robespierre.
18.   A large group among the Jacobins decided to start wearing long striped trousers.
19.   These Jacobins came to be known as the sans-culottes, literally meaning ‘those without knee breeches’.
20.   Sansculottes men wore in addition the red cap that symbolised liberty (आजादी).
21.   But Women were not allowed to wear this.
22.   In the summer of 1792 the Jacobins planned to protest with large number of Parisians who were angered by the short supplies and high prices of food.
23.   On the morning of August 10 they attacked the Palace of the Tuileries, murdered the king’s guards and held the king himself as hostage (बन्धक) for several hours.
24.   Later the Assembly voted to imprison (क़ैद करना) the royal family.
25.   Elections were held.
26.   From now on all men of 21 years and above, regardless of wealth, got the right to vote.
27.   The newly elected assembly was called the Convention.
28.   On 21 September 1792 it abolished (समाप्त करना) the monarchy and declared France a republic (गणतंत्र).
29.   As you know, a republic is a form of government where the people elect the government including the head of the government.
30.   There is no hereditary (वंशागत) monarchy.
31.   Louis XVI was sentenced to death by a court on the charge of treason (राज-द्रोह).
32.   On 21 January 1793 he was executed (फाँसी देना) publicly at the Place de la Concorde.
33.   The queen Marie Antoinette was also executed.

Subscribe My You Tube channel- Competitive World Knowledge
To get the videos FOR UPSC, State PCS, SSC CGL, Bank PO, RBI,...
Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science
The Reign of Terror
1.       The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign of Terror.
2.       Robespierre followed a policy of serious (गम्भीर) control and punishment.
3.       All those who were ‘enemies’ of the republic – ex-nobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his own party who did not agree with his methods – were arrested, imprisoned and then sued (मुक़दमा चलाना) according to the court.
4.       If the court found them ‘guilty (दोषी)’ they were guillotined (सिर काटने का एक प्रकार का यन्त्र).
5.       The guillotine is a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person is beheaded (सिर काटना).
6.       It was named after Dr Guillotin who invented it.
7.       Robespierre’s government issued laws placing a maximum limit on wages and prices.
8.       Meat and bread were rationed (राशन देना).
9.       Peasants were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at prices fixed by the government.
10.   The use of more expensive (क़ीमती) white flour was forbidden (मना करना); all citizens were required to eat bread, a loaf (पावरोटी) made of whole-wheat.
11.   Equality was also sought to be practised through forms of speech and address.
12.   Instead of the traditional Monsieur (Sir) and Madame (Madam) all French men and women were henceforth (इसके बाद से) Citoyen and Citoyenne (Citizen).
13.   Churches were shut down and their buildings converted into barracks (सेनावास) or offices.
14.   Robespierre pursued his policies strongly that even his supporters began to demand change.
15.   Finally, he was convicted (अपराधी) by a court in July 1794, arrested and on the next day sent to the guillotine.
A Directory Rules France
1.       The rich middle classes got the power, soon after the fall of the Jacobin government.
2.       A new constitution was introduced which denied (इन्कार करना) the vote to non-propertied sections of society.
3.       It provided for two elected legislative councils.
4.       They appointed a Directory, an executive made up of five members.
5.       They did not adopt the concentration of power in a one-man executive as under the Jacobins.
6.       However, the Directors often clashed (लड़ना) with the legislative councils, & had the power to dismiss them.
7.       The political instability of the Directory opened the way for the rise of a military dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte. Through all these changes in the form of government, the ideals (आदर्श) of freedom, of equality before the law and of fraternity (भाईचारा) remained inspiring (प्रेरणाप्रद) ideals.
8.       It motivated political movements (आंदोलन) in France and the rest of Europe during the following century.

Subscribe My You Tube channel- Competitive World Knowledge
To get the videos FOR UPSC, State PCS, SSC CGL, Bank PO, RBI,...
Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science
Did Women have a Revolution?
1.       From the very beginning women were active participants in the events which brought so many changes in French society.
2.       They hoped that their involvement would pressurise the revolutionary government to improve their lives.
3.       Most women of the third estate had to work for a living.
4.       They worked as seamstresses (दर्जिन) or laundresses (धोबी), sold flowers, fruits and vegetables at the market.
5.       Some of them were employed as domestic (घरेलू नौकर) servants in the houses of prosperous (समृद्ध) people.
6.       Most women did not have access to education or job training.
7.       Only daughters of nobles (रईस) of the third estate could study at a convent, after which their families arranged a marriage for them.
8.       Working women had also to care for their families, that is, cook, fetch (जाकर लाना) water, queue up (लाइन लगाना) for bread and look after (देखभाल करना) the children.
9.       Their wages (तनख़्वाह) were lower than those of men.
10.   In order to discuss and voice their interests women started their own political clubs and newspapers.
11.   About 60 women’s clubs came up in different French cities.
12.   The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women was the most famous of them.
13.   One of their main demands was that women enjoy the same political rights as men.
14.   Women were disappointed (निराश) that the Constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive citizens.
15.   They demanded the right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office.
16.   In the early years, the revolutionary government implemented laws to improve the lives of women.
17.   With the creation of state schools, schooling was made compulsory for all girls.
18.   Their fathers could no longer force them into marriage against their will (इच्छा).
19.   Marriage was made into a contract and registered under civil law.
20.   Divorce was made legal (क़ानूनी), and could be applied for by both women and men.
21.   Women could now do jobs, could become artists or run small businesses.
22.   During the Reign (राज) of Terror (आतंक), the new government issued laws ordering closure (बंद होना) of women’s clubs and banning their political activities.
23.   Many important women were arrested and a number of them executed (फांसी देना).
24.   Women’s movements (आंदोलन) for voting rights and equal wages continued through the next 200 years in many countries of the world.
25.   The fight for the vote movement was continue during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
26.   It was finally in 1946 that women in France won the right to vote.
1.       One of the most revolutionary social reforms (सुधार) of the Jacobin regime (प्रशासन) was the abolition of slavery in the French colonies.  
2.       The colonies in the Caribbean – Martinique, Guadeloupe and San Domingo – were important suppliers of commodities (सामग्री) such as tobacco, indigo (नील), sugar and coffee.
3.       But the Europeans had not willingness to go and work in distant (दूर) and unfamiliar lands meant a shortage (कमी) of labour on the plantations.
4.       So, this was met by a triangular slave trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas.
5.       The slave trade began in the 17th century.
6.       French merchants sailed (जहाज चलाना) from the ports of Bordeaux or Nantes to the African coast, where they bought slaves from local chieftains (सरदार).
7.       Then, they were sold to plantation owners.
8.       The exploitation (शोषण) of slave labour made it possible to fulfil the demand in European markets for sugar, coffee, and indigo.
9.       Port cities like Bordeaux and Nantes made their economic prosperity to the flourishing (फलता-फूलता) by slave trade.
10.   Throughout the 18th century there was little criticism (आलोचना) of slavery in France.
11.   The National Assembly held long debates about whether the rights of man should be extended to all French people including those in the colonies.
12.   But it did not pass any laws because of the fear of the businessmen whose incomes depended on the slave trade.
13.   It was finally the Convention which in 1794 implemented law to free all slaves in the French overseas possessions.
14.   This, however, turned out to be a short-term measure: 10 years later, Napoleon reintroduced slavery.
15.   Plantation owners got the right to enslave (ग़ुलाम बनाना) African Negroes to make economic interests.
16.   Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies in 1848.

Subscribe My You Tube channel- Competitive World Knowledge
To get the videos FOR UPSC, State PCS, SSC CGL, Bank PO, RBI,...
Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science
1.       The years following 1789 in France saw many such changes in the lives of men, women and children.
2.       The revolutionary governments passed many laws that would make liberty (आजादी) and equality into everyday practice.
3.       One important law that came into effect soon after the storming (विध्वंस करना) of the Bastille in the summer of 1789 was the abolition of censorship.
4.       In the Old Regime (शासन) all written material and cultural activities – books, newspapers, plays – could be published or performed only after they had been approved by the censors of the king.
5.       Now the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen proclaimed (प्रकाशित करना) freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right.
6.       Newspapers, pamphlets, books and printed pictures flooded the towns of France from where they travelled rapidly into the countryside (ग्रामीण क्षेत्र).
7.       They all described and discussed the events and changes taking place in France.
8.       Freedom of the press also meant that opposing (विरोधी) views of events could be expressed.
9.       Plays, songs and festivals attracted large numbers of people.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog