The rise of the nationalism in Europe with notes || Class 10 Chapter 1 History ||

Chapter 1
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Nationalism – loyalty (ईमानदारी) and devotion (निष्ठा) to a nation or a feeling of love or pride (गर्व) for your own country
The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation
1.       First time nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789.
2.       France was completely under the monarchy (राज-तंत्र) rule.
3.       The political and constitutional changes brought by the citizens to transfer of sovereignty (स्वतंत्र राज्य) from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
4.       The revolution proclaimed (घोषित करना) that the people of France constitute (बनाना) the nation and shape its destiny.
5.       They made rules to provide equal rights to all community under a constitution.
6.       A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former (पहला) royal standard.
7.       The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
8.       New hymns (गीत) were composed, oaths (शपथ) taken and martyrs (शहीद) commemorated (श्रद्धांजलि देना), all in the name of the nation.
9.       Internal customs duties (सीमा शुल्क) and dues (शुल्क) were abolished.
10.   French (spoken and written in Paris) became the common language of the nation.
11.   Later, this events adopted in many countries like Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s.
12.   With the starting of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
13.   Onwards of 1797, Napoleon introduced many reforms (सुधार) that he had already introduced in France.
14.   He destroyed democracy in France by introducing monarchy system again.
15.   In 1804, he introduced civil code or Napoleonic Code means he abolished all privileges (विशेषाधिकार) based on birth & established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
16.   In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, he abolished the feudal (सामन्तवादी) system and freed (मुक्त) peasants from serfdom (दास प्रथा) and manorial dues (सामंती कर).
17.   Transport and communication systems were improved.
18.   Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new-found freedom.
19.   All were getting more facilities like uniform laws, same currency in the nation to provide exchange (अदला बदली) of goods and capital (संपत्ति) from one region to another.
20.   Except these facilities provided by the Napoleon, some were very bad like he ordered to the people to join the army because he wanted to conquer (जीतना) rest of the Europe.

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                      Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science
The Making of Nationalism in Europe
1.       Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons (प्रांत) whose rulers had their autonomous (स्वतन्त्र) territories.
2.       Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic (एकतंत्र) monarchies.
3.       They did not want to share their territory or a common culture.
4.       They spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic (गैर-ईसाई) groups.
5.       E.g. Habsburg Empire (साम्राज्य) that ruled over Austria-Hungary was made of many different regions and people.
6.       It included the Alpine regions – the Tyrol, Austria and the Sudetenland as well as Bohemia.
7.       In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects (देशी भाषा).
8.       In Galicia, the aristocracy (रईस-वर्ग) spoke Polish.
9.       Except these, there also lived within the boundaries of the empire, a group of peasant people.
10.   Such differences did not easy to unite (एक करना) them.

The Aristocracy (रईस-वर्ग) and the New Middle Class (मध्य वर्ग)
1.       A landed aristocracy (रईस-वर्ग) was the dominant (प्रभावशाली) class on the European continent.
2.       They owned (मालिक होना) estates (जायदाद) in the countryside (ग्रामीण क्षेत्र) and also town-houses.
3.       They spoke French for purposes of politics and in high society status.
4.       This powerful aristocracy was a small group.
5.       The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry.
6.       To the west, the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants (किरायेदार) and small owners, while the large part in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was cultivated by slaves (ग़ुलाम).
7.       In Western and parts of Central Europe the growth of industrial production and trade increased the growth of towns which depends on the production for the market.
8.       Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the 18th century, but in France and parts of the German states it occurred only during the 19th century.
9.       Due to this new social groups came into existence: a working-class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals.
10.   In Central and Eastern Europe these groups were smaller in number till late 19th century.
What did Liberal Nationalism stand for?
1.       The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin word liber, meaning free (आज़ाद).
2.       For the new middle classes liberalism (उदारतावाद or स्वतंत्र विचार) meant for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law
3.       After the French Revolution, liberalism had represented a constitution and government through parliament by the end of autocracy (तानाशाही) and clerical (पादरी वर्ग) privileges (विशेषाधिकार).
4.       19th century liberals also gave importance the security of private property.
5.       In France, first political experiment in liberal democracy, the right to vote and to get elected was given to property-owning men (Active citizen).
6.       Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights.
7.       Only for a small period under the Jacobins did all adult males enjoy suffrage (मताधिकार).
8.       Under the Napoleonic Code, he end up (समाप्त करना) suffrage (मताधिकार) to all women and non-propertied men and then they organised (आयोजित करना) opposition movements demanding equal political rights.
9.       In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for (पक्ष में होना) the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
10.   Let us take the example of the German-speaking regions in the first half of the 19th century.
11.   Napoleon’s administrative had countless small states (राज्य), in which 39 states made their confederation (संघ).
12.   Each of these had its own currency, and weights and measures.
13.   A merchant (व्यापारी) travelling in 1833 from Hamburg to Nuremberg to sell his goods would have had to pass through 11 customs (सीमा-शुल्क) barriers (नाका) and pay a customs duty (सीमा शुल्क) of about 5 % at each one of them.
14.   Duties were often taken according to the weight or measurement of the goods.
15.   In 1834, a customs union or zollverein was formed.
16.   This union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.

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                      Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science
A New Conservatism after 1815
1.       After the defeat (हराना) of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by conservatism (रुढ़िवाद).
2.       They believed that traditional institutions of state and society – like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies (ऊंच नीच), property and the family – should be preserved (सुरक्षित होना).
3.       Most conservatives did not want to return to the society of pre-revolutionary days.
4.       They realised from the changes started by Napoleon that modernisation could strengthen (मजबूत करना) traditional (पौराणिक) institutions like the monarchy.
5.       A modern army, an efficient (कुशल) bureaucracy (नौकरशाही), a dynamic (गतिशील) economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom (दास प्रथा) could strengthen the autocratic (निरंकुश) monarchies of Europe.
6.       In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.
7.       It was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.
8.       The delegates (प्रतिनिधि) prepared the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the objective of abolishing the changes which were done by Napoleonic wars.
9.       After it, some states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
10.   In the North Netherlands was set up with Belgium.
11.   In the south, Genoa was added to Piedmont.
12.   Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers (सीमा), while Austria was given control of northern Italy.
13.   In the east, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion of Saxony.
14.   The main intention was to restore the monarchies that had been ended up by Napoleon, and create a new conservative order in Europe.
15.   These conservatives did not tolerate (बर्दाश्त करना) criticism (आलोचना) and dissent (असहमति), and nobody could rise questioned against the governments.
16.   Most of them imposed (थोपना) censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs etc
17.   One of the major issues taken up by the liberal-nationalists, who criticised the new conservative order, was freedom of the press.

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The Revolutionaries
1.       Due to this conservatism, secret societies raised in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas
2.       These revolutionaries meant to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the treaty of Vienna, and to fight for liberty (स्वतंत्रता) and freedom (आज़ादी).
3.       One such individual was the Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini.
4.       Born in Genoa in 1807, he became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari.
5.       At the age of 24, he was sent into exile (देश निकाला) in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
6.       He founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
7.       Mazzini opposed to monarchy and through his vision of democratic republics scared (डराना) the conservatives.
The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848
1.       The revolutions were led by the educated middle-class elite (उच्च वर्ग) like professors, schoolteachers, clerks etc.
2.       The first revolution (क्रान्ति) took place in France in July 1830.
3.       The Bourbon kings were overthrown (तख्ता पलट देना) after 1815 by liberal revolutionaries who installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head.
4.       The July Revolution increased the uprising (बगावत) in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
5.       Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the 15th century.
6.       The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe started a struggle for independence in 1821.
7.       Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised (मान्यता देना) Greece as an independent nation.

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                      Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science

The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling
1.       Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation like art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings.
2.       Romanticism, a cultural movement which want to develop a different form of nationalist sentiment (भावना)
3.       Language played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
4.       Russian language was imposed (थोपना) everywhere
5.       In 1831, an armed rebellion (राज द्रोह) against Russian rule took place which was crushed (कुचलना).
Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt
1.       Europe faced great economic hardship (कठिनाई) in 1830s.
2.       The first half of the 19th century saw an enormous (बहुत अधिक) increase in population all over Europe.
3.       Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
4.       The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread poverty (गरीबी) in town and country.
5.       In 1948, Food shortages and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads & Louis Philippe was forced to flee (भाग जाना) and National Assembly announced a Republic
6.       In 1845, weavers in Silesia had led a revolt (विद्रोह) against contractors
1848: The Revolution of the Liberals
1.       In 1848, a revolution led by the educated middle classes & demanded of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
2.       A large number of political associations (members were middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans) came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly.
3.       On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched & take their places in the Frankfurt parliament.
4.       They drafted a constitution for a German nation
5.       A large numbers of women participated actively in liberal movement.
6.       Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations (पर्दर्शन).
7.       But they were still denied (इनकार करना) suffrage rights during the election of the Assembly.

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The Making of Germany and Italy
Germany – Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation?
1.       After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away (हटाना) and Germany and Italy came to be unified (एक में मिला हुआ or एकीकृत) as nation-states.
2.       Prussia took on the leadership of the movement (आंदोलन) for national unification.
3.       Its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of this process carried out (अंजाम देना) with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
4.       Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – fought & won by Prussian and completed the process of unification.
5.       In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed (घोषित करना) German Emperor (सम्राट)
6.       William I of Prussia proclaimed the new German Empire
7.       The new state emphasised on modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany.

Italy Unified
1.       During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states
2.       Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.
3.       All the region were dominated (राज्य करना) by the different kings
4.       In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini formed a secret society called Young Italy
5.       The movement to unify the regions was led by Chief Minister Cavour.
6.       In 1859, Sardinia-Piedmont defeated Austrian forces with the help of Cavour.
7.       In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies with the help of the local farmers & succeeded to remove Spanish ruler..
8.       In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was announced king of united Italy.

The Strange Case of Britain
1.       There was no British nation prior (पहिला) to the 18th century
2.       The nation became powerful as it continuously grew in wealth, importance and power.
3.       The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
4.       In 1801, Ireland was forcely merged into the United Kingdom.
5.       A new ‘British nation’ was formed through the propagation (प्रचार) of a dominant English culture.
6.       The symbols of the New Britain – the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), the English language – were actively promoted.


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