The story of village palampur with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 9 Chapter 1 Economics ||

Chapter – 1
The Story of Village Palampur
Organisation of Production
The aim (उद्देश्य) of production (उत्पादन) is to produce the goods and services.
There are four requirements (आवश्यकता) for production of goods and services.
1) Land – Land and other natural resources such as water, forests, minerals
2) Labour –Some production activities require highly educated workers to perform the necessary tasks & other activities require workers who can do physical work.
3) Physical capital - variety of inputs needs at every stage during production. It is of two types
a) Fixed capital – It is used for the long period of time for the production e.g. Tools, machines, buildings
b) Working capital - Production requires Raw materials (कच्चा माल) and money (always required to make payments and buy items).
It helps in increase in the production.
4) Human capital – To get more benefits & knowledge with the help of land, labour and physical capital

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Farming in Palampur
Land is fixed
1.       75 % of the people in Palampur are dependent on farming & production on the farms for their livelihood (रोजगार).
2.       They could be farmers or farm labourers (मजदूर).
3.       But there is a basic limitation in raising farm production.
4.       Land area under cultivation is practically fixed.
5.       Since 1960 in Palampur, some of the wastelands in the village had been converted to cultivable land.
6.       There is no further scope to increase farm production by bringing new land under cultivation.
7.       Note - The standard unit of measuring land is hectare.

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Is there a way one can grow more from the same land?
1.       All land is cultivated (खेती करना) in Palampur.
2.       During the rainy season (kharif) farmers grow jowar and bajra.
3.       These plants are used as cattle feed.
4.       After it, cultivation of potato between October and December
5.       In the winter season (Rabi), farmers grow wheat (गेहूँ).
6.       Farmers keep enough wheat for the family’s use and sell the surplus (शेष or extra) wheat at the market at Raiganj.
7.       Sugarcane (गन्ना) is also grown which is harvested (काटना) once every year.
8.       The main reason to grow 3 different crops in a year is due to the well-developed system of irrigation (सिंचाई).
9.       Electricity came early to Palampur & changed the system of irrigation.
10.   People saw that the electric-run tubewells could irrigate (पानी देना) much larger areas of land.
11.   The first few tubewells were installed by the government.
12.   Soon, farmers started to install private tubewells.
13.   To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping.
14.   It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land.

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Green Revolution
1.       Another way to use modern farming methods for higher yield (पैदावार)
2.       The Green Revolution in the late 1960s introduced the Indian farmer to cultivation of wheat and rice using high yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds (बीज).
3.       Now, same piece of land would produce far larger quantities of food grains.
4.       HYV seeds needed more water, chemical fertilizers (खाद) and pesticides (कीटनाशक) to produce best results.  
5.       First introduced in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.
6.       Some of them bought farm machinery, like tractors and threshers (गाहने की मशीन), which made ploughing and harvesting faster.
7.       In starting Palampur, the yield of wheat grown was 1300 kg per hectare but later this yield increased to 3200 kg per hectare.
                               

Disadvantages of Green Revolution
1.       HYV seeds needed more water, chemical fertilizers and pesticides
2.       Use of large quantities of fertilizers & pesticides, resulted in loss of soil fertility (उपजाऊ).
3.      Tubewells irrigation system has reduced the ground water table below the ground
How is land distributed between the farmers of Palampur?
1.       In Palampur, about one third of the 450 families are landless, i.e. 150 families.
2.       240 families had their own cultivation (खेती) land which is less than 2 hectares in size.
3.       Cultivation of such plots doesn’t bring enough income to the farmer family.
4.       These are cultivated by the small farmers.
5.       There are 60 families of medium and large farmers who cultivate more than 2 hectares of land.
6.       A few of the large farmers have land extending over 10 hectares or more.

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Who will provide the labour?
1.       Labour (मजदूर) is the important factor for production.
2.       Farming requires more hard work.
3.       Small farmers along with their families cultivate their own fields.
4.       Medium and large farmers hire (किराये पर लेना) farm labourers to work on their fields.
5.       Farm labourers come either from landless families or families cultivating small plots of land.
6.       They are paid wages (तनख़्वाह) by the farmer in cash or in the form crop (फ़सल).
The capital needed in farming
1.       Most small farmers have to borrow (उधार लेना) money from large farmers or the village moneylenders (साहूकार) or the traders (व्यापारी) who supply various inputs for cultivation.
2.       The rate of interest on such loans is very high.
3.       So they are in great stress (दबाव) to repay (चुकाना) the loan.
4.       Whereas medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming
Sale of Surplus Farm Products
1.       After the wheat is harvested, they store some part of the wheat for the family’s consumption (उपयोग) & sell the surplus wheat.
2.       Small farmers have little surplus wheat because their total production is small and from this, they store larger share for their own family needs.
3.       Whereas the medium and large farmers who supply wheat to the market.

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Non-Farm Activities in Palampur
In Palampur, only 25 % of the people work in other activities other than agriculture.
Dairy — the other common activity
1.       Dairy is a common activity in many families of Palampur.
2.       They sell milk in the nearby village.
3.       Two traders from Shahpur town have set up collection & chilling (ठंडा करना) centres at Raiganj from where the milk is transported to far away towns and cities.
Small-scale manufacturing
1.       At present, less than 50 people are engaged in manufacturing in Palampur.
2.       Manufacturing in the towns and cities of Palampur are involves very simple production methods on a small scale.
3.       This is done at home or in the fields with the help of family labour.

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The shopkeepers of Palampur
1.       The traders (not many) of Palampur are shopkeepers who buy various (कई प्रकार का) goods from wholesale markets in the cities and sell them in the village.
2.       Like rice, wheat, sugar, tea, oil, biscuits, soap, toothpaste, batteries, candles, notebooks, pen, pencil, even some cloth
Transport: a fast developing sector
1.       There are varieties of vehicles on the road connecting Palampur to Raiganj.
2.       Rickshawallahs, tongawallahs, jeep, tractor, truck drivers etc are people in the transport services.
3.       They ferry (एक स्थान से दूसरे स्थान पहुँचाना) people and goods from one place to another, and in return get paid for it.
4.       The number of people involved in transport has increased over the last several years.

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