Tracing changes through a thousand years with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 7 Chapter 1 History ||
Class 7 History Chapter 1 Notes
TRACING CHANGES THROUGH A THOUSAND YEARS
1. Map 1 was made in 1154 CE by the Arab geographer Al-Idrisi.
2. This section tells about Indian subcontinent from his larger map of the world.
3. In this map, south India is where we would expect to find north India and Sri Lanka is the island at the top.
4. Place-names are marked in Arabic, and there are some well-known names like Kanauj (or Qanauj) in Uttar Pradesh.
5. Map 2 was made in the 1720s by a French cartographer (नक्शानवीस).
6. It was made nearly 600 years after Map 1 and had changed a lot.
7. This map looks more familiar to us and the coastal (तटवर्ती) areas are surprisingly detailed.
8. This map was used by European sailors (नौकाचालक) and merchants (व्यापारी) on their voyages (समुद्रयात्रा).
9. The two maps are quite different even though they are of the same area.
New and Old Terminologies
1. Historical records exist in a variety (अनेक प्रकार) of languages which have changed with the years.
2. Medieval Persian (फ़ारसी), for example, is different from modern Persian.
3. The difference is not just with regard to grammar and vocabulary; the meanings of words also change over time.
4. Take the term “Hindustan”, e.g. today we call it as “India”.
5. In 13th century, Minhaj-i-Siraj used the term ‘Hindustan’, he meant that the areas of Punjab, Haryana and the lands between the Ganga and Yamuna & were a part of the Delhi Sultan.
6. In the 14th century poet Amir Khusrau used the word “Hind”.
Historians and their Sources
1. Historians use different types of sources to learn about the past depending upon the period of their study and the nature of their investigation.
2. They still depend on coins, inscriptions, architecture and textual records for information.
3. During this period textual records increased dramatically (प्रभावशाली तरीके से), cheaper & widely available
4. Manuscripts (Hand written text) were collected & placed in libraries and archives (लेखागार).
5. These manuscripts and documents provide a lot of detailed information to historians but they are also difficult to use.
6. There was no printing press in those days so scribes (लिखनेवाला) copied manuscripts by hand.
7. As scribes copied manuscripts, they also introduced small changes – a word here, a sentence there.
8. These small differences (changes) grew over centuries & different from one another.
9. This is a serious problem because we rarely find the original manuscript of the author today.
10. Different kinds of handwriting like the nastaliq style are cursive (smooth) and easy to read, the shikaste is denser and more difficult.
11. Chronicler Ziyauddin Barani wrote his first chronicle (वृत्तांत or तिथि-ग्रंथ) in 1356 and another version two years later.
12. The two differ from each other but historians found the existence of the first version 1971.
13. It remained lost in large library collections.
New Social and Political Groups
1. In this period new technologies made their appearance – like the Persian wheel in irrigation (सिंचाई), the spinning (कताई) wheel in weaving, and firearms (तोप) in combat (युद्ध).
2. New foods and beverages (पीने की वस्तु) arrived in the subcontinent – potatoes, corn (मकई), chillies (लालमिर्च), tea and coffee.
3. Remember that all these innovations – new technologies and crops – came along with people, who brought other ideas with them as well.
4. As a result, this was a period of economic, political, social and cultural changes.
5. Groups of people travelled long distances in search of opportunity.
6. One group of people who became important in this period was the Rajputs, a name derived from “Rajaputra”, the son of a ruler.
7. Other groups of people such as the Marathas, Sikhs, Jats, Ahoms and Kayasthas (a caste of scribes (लिखनेवाला) and secretaries) also used the opportunities of the age to become politically important.
8. Throughout this period there was a gradual clearing of forests and the extension (विस्तार) of agriculture.
9. Changes in their habitat (निवासस्थान) forced many forest-dwellers to migrate.
10. Others started ploughing the land and became peasants (किसान).
11. Due to this, economic and social differences emerged based on jatis/sub-caste, occupation & background.
12. The status of the same jati could vary from area to area.
13. Jatis framed their own rules and regulations to manage the conduct of their members.
14. These regulations were enforced (लागू करना) by an assembly of elders, described in some areas as the jati panchayat.
15. Several villages were governed by a chieftain (सरदार).
Region and Empire
1. Large states like those of the Cholas, Tughluqs or Mughals covered many regions.
2. In the praising (प्रशंसा करना) of Delhi Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-1287) explained that he was the ruler of a vast empire (साम्राज्य) that extended from Bengal (Gauda) in the east to Ghazni (Gajjana) in Afghanistan in the west and included all of south India (Dravida).
3. By AD 700 many regions already decided different geographical dimensions and their own language and cultural characteristics.
4. Sometimes, dynasties like the Cholas, Khaljis, Tughluqs and Mughals were able to build an empire that was pan-regional – spanning diverse regions.
5. Not all these empires were equally stable or successful.
6. Through the thousand years between 700 and 1750 the character of the different regions did not grow in isolation (एकांत).
Old and New Religions
1. We can see major changes in the developments in religious traditions.
2. The important changes occurred in what we call Hinduism today.
3. These included the worship (पूजा करना) of new deities (ईश्वर), the construction of temples and the growing importance of Brahmanas, the priests, as dominant (प्रधान) groups in society.
4. Their knowledge of Sanskrit texts earned the Brahmanas a lot of respect in society.
5. This was also the period when new religions appeared in the subcontinent.
6. Merchants and migrants first brought the teachings of the holy (पवित्र) Quran to India in the 7th century.
7. Muslims consider the Quran as their holy book and accept the sovereignty (प्रधानता) of the one God, Allah.
8. There were the Shia Muslims who believed that the Prophet (पैगम्बर) Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, was the legitimate (सच्चा) leader of the Muslim community.
9. Other was the Sunni Muslims who accepted the authority of the early leaders (Khalifas) of the community.
Popular posts from this blog
India size and location with notes in hindi Class 9 Chapter 1 Geography Class – 9, Chapter – 1 INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION LOCATION 1. India lying entirely in the Northern hemisphere 2. The main land extends ( फैलना ) between latitudes 8°4'N and 37°6'N and longitudes 68°7'E and 97°25'E. 3. The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30'N) divides the country into almost two equal parts. 4. The southeast part of India lays in the Andaman and Nicobar Island in Bay of Bengal. 5. The southwest part lays in Lakshadweep islands in the Arabian Sea. SIZE 1. The land mass of India has an area of 3.28 million square km. 2. India’s total area is 2.4 % of the total geographical area of the world. 3. India is the 7 th largest country of the world. 4. India has a land boundary of about 15,200 km. 5. The total length of the coast line of the mainland including Andaman and Nicobar and Lak
Democracy in the Contemporary world with notes in hindi || Class 9 Chapter 1 Politics || Chapter 1 Democracy in the Contemporary World TWO TALES OF DEMOCRACY 1. Salvador Allende was the President of Chile (in South America). 2. He gave the speech on the morning of 11 September 1973, when his government was overthrown ( तख्ता पलट देना ) by the military. 3. Allende was the founder ( संस्थापक ) leader of the Socialist Party of Chile. 4. He led ( नेतृत्व करना ) the “Popular Unity” coalition ( गठबंधन ) to victory in the presidential election in 1970. 5. After being elected the President, Allende had taken several policy decisions to help the poor and the workers. 6. These included reform ( सुधार ) of the educational system, free milk for children and redistribution of land to the landless farmers. 7. He stopped foreign companies to taking away ( ले जाना ) natural resources like copper from the country
The story of village palampur with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 9 Chapter 1 Economics || Chapter – 1 The Story of Village Palampur Organisation of Production The aim ( उद्देश्य ) of production ( उत्पादन ) is to produce the goods and services. There are four requirements ( आवश्यकता ) for production of goods and services. 1) Land – Land and other natural resources such as water, forests, minerals 2) Labour –Some production activities require highly educated workers to perform the necessary tasks & other activities require workers who can do physical work. 3) Physical capital - variety of inputs needs at every stage during production. It is of two types a) Fixed capital – It is used for the long period of time for the production e.g. Tools, machines, buildings b) Working capital - Production requires Raw materials ( कच्चा माल ) and money (always required to make payments and buy items). It helps in increase in the production. 4) Human capital – To g