What where how and when with notes + Que Ans (हिंदी में) || Class 6 Chapter 1 History ||


Class 6, Chapter 1
WHAT, WHERE, HOW AND WHEN
1.       Gaining of the knowledge from the study of the past is called History.
2.       People who describe the past are known as historians.
3.       The science of exploring (खोजना) & digging (खुदाई करना) the remains (अवशेष) of the past is called archaeology
4.       Objects of different kinds made by humans in the past are called artifacts (शिल्पकृति).
5.       The time period in the history before the invention (आविष्कार) of writing is called prehistory.
6.       The written records mentioned on stone or any other hard surface that provide important informations about kings, queens and their kingdoms etc are called inscriptions (अभिलेख)

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Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science
What can we know about the past?
1.       What people ate, the kinds of clothes they wore, the houses in which they lived.
2.       Lives of hunters (शिकारी), herders (पशुचारक), farmers, rulers, merchants (व्यापारी), priests (पादरी), crafts persons, artists, musicians, and scientists
3.       Games children played, the stories they heard, the plays they saw, and the songs they sang.
Where did people live?
1.       People have lived along the banks (किनारा) of Narmada River for several years.
2.       Some of the earliest people were gatherers (gathering their food).
3.       They knew about the plants in the forests, and collected roots (जड़), fruits and other forest produce for their food.
4.       They also hunted animals.
                           
   
Sulaiman and Kirthar hills to the northwest
1.       Some of the first areas where people began to grow crops such as wheat (गेहूँ) and barley (जौ)
2.       People also began rearing (पालना) animals like sheep, goat, and cattle, and lived in villages.
Garo hills to the north-east and the Vindhyas in central India
1.       These were some of the other areas where agriculture developed.
2.       Rice was first grown are to the north of the Vindhyas.

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Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science
Trace the river Indus and its tributaries
1.       About 4700 years ago, some of the earliest cities flourished (समृद्ध होना) on the banks of these rivers.
2.       Later, about 2500 years ago, cities developed on the banks of the Ganga and its tributaries, and along the sea coasts.
Ganga and its tributary (Son)
1.       In ancient (प्राचीन) times the area, south of the Ganga was known as Magadha now lying in the state of Bihar
2.       Its rulers were very powerful, and set up a large kingdom & also extended (बढ़ाना) in other parts of the country.
3.       People travelled from one part to another through the Himalayas, deserts, rivers and seas made journeys dangerous.
4.       People also moved in search of livelihood (रोज़गार) or from natural disasters (विनाश) like floods (बाढ़) or droughts (सुखा).
5.       Merchants travelled with ships, carrying valuable goods from place to place.
6.       Religious (धार्मिक) teachers walked from village to village, town to town, to give instruction and advice on the way.

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Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science
Why do people travel nowadays?
1.       In ancient time Hills, mountains and seas were difficult to cross it but some crossed it and settled here.
2.       These movements of people enriched (समृद्ध बनाना) our cultural traditions (परंपरा).
3.       People have shared new ways of carving (तराशना) stone, composing music, and even cooking food with each others.
Names of the land
1.       Two of the words we often use for our country are India and Bharat.
2.       The word India comes from the Indus, called Sindhu in Sanskrit.
3.       The Iranians and the Greeks came through the northwest and were familiar with the Indus & they called it the Hindos or the Indos, and the land to the east of the river was called India.
4.       The name Bharata was used for a group of people who lived in the northwest and who are mentioned in the Rigveda & Later it was used for the country.

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Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science
Finding out about the past
1.       One way to search and read books that was written long ago.
2.       These are called manuscripts, because they were written by hand (Latin word ‘manu’, meaning hand).
3.       These were usually written on palm (ताड़ का पेड़) leaf, or on the specially prepared bark of a tree (वृक्ष की छाल) known as the birch.
4.       Many manuscripts were eaten by insects (कीड़ा), some were destroyed, but many have survived, often preserved (सुरक्षित रखना) in temples and monasteries (आश्रम).
5.       These books dealt with all kinds of subjects: religious beliefs and practices, the lives of kings, medicine and science.
7.       Many of these were written in Sanskrit, others were in Prakrit (languages used by ordinary people) and Tamil.
8.       Besides these, Inscriptions are written on hard surfaces like stone or metal.
9.       Sometimes, kings got their orders inscribed so that people could see, read and obey them.
10.   There are other kinds of inscriptions as well, where men and women (including kings and queens) recorded what they did.
11.   For example, kings often kept records of victories (विजय) in battle (युद्ध).
      
                 
                               

Advantages of writing on a hard surface
1.       People who study these objects are called archaeologists.
2.       They study the remains (अवशेष) of buildings made of stone and brick, paintings and sculpture (मूर्ति).
3.       They also explore (खोजना) and excavate (खोदना) to find tools, weapons (हथियार), pots, pans, ornaments (आभूषण) and coins.
4.       Some of these objects may be made of stone, others of bone, baked clay (चिकनी मिट्टी) or metal.
5.       Archaeologists also look for bones of animals, birds, and fish to find out what people ate in the past.

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Class 6th to 12th Politics, History, Geography, Economy…7th to 10th Science
What do dates mean?
1.       We take the year of birth of Jesus Christ as zero.
2.       So, 2000 means 2000 years after the birth of Christ & expressed in AD (Anno Domini means in the year of the Lord) like AD 2020 or CE (Common Era).
3.       All dates before the birth of Christ are counted backwards and usually have the letters BC (Before Christ) added on like 300 BC or BCE (Before Common Era).
          

1) Match the following
Narmada Valley                      Hunting and gathering
Magadha                                 The first big kingdom
Garo hills                                  early agriculture 
Indus and its tributaries        the first cities 
Ganga Valley                            Cities about 2500 years ago
2) List one major difference between manuscripts and inscriptions.
Manuscripts were usually written on palm leaf, or on the specially prepared bark of a tree known as the birch
Inscriptions are written on hard surfaces like stone or metal
3) Make a list of all the objects that archaeologists may find. Which of these could be made of stone?
Objects – Potteries, tools, skeletons, toys, clothes, statues, pots, pans & ornaments
Out of these statues, ornaments & Potteries are formed from stone
4) Why do you think ordinary men and women did not generally keep records of what they did?
They did not have enough time
Their life was full of difficulties
5) Describe at least two ways in which you think the lives of kings would have been different from those of farmers.

Farmers
Kings
1.       life was full of difficulties
1.       life was comfortable
2.       They had to work in the field to grow food grains
2.       They had not to work in the field

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