Class - 10, Chapter - 1
Resources & Development
Resources
1.       Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs
2.       E.g. Minerals, Forest, Water, land, air
3.       Resource should be technologically accessible - Should have the equipment to reach easily, economically feasible (संभव) - have money to get easily with profit and culturally (सांस्कृतिक रूप से)  acceptable resources must not be under the religious (धार्मिक) places which hurts the people.
Classification of Resources
On the Basis of Origin
1.       Biotic Resources: These are obtained from living things and have life such as human beings, flora (वनस्पति) and fauna (जीवजंतु), fisheries, livestock (पशुधन) etc.
2.       Abiotic Resources: All those things which are composed (रचना) of non-living things are called abiotic resources. E.g., rocks and metals
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On the Basis of Exhaustibility
Renewable Resources:
1.       The resources which can be renewed or reproduced are known as renewable or replenishable resources.
2.       E.g., solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife (वन्य जीव-जंतु) etc.
Non-Renewable Resources:
1.       It takes a very long geological time.
2.       E.g. Minerals and fossil fuels
3.       These resources take millions of years in their formation.
4.       Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted (समाप्त कर देना) with their use.
On the Basis of Ownership
Individual Resources:-
1.       These are also owned privately by individuals.
2.       Many farmers own (मालिक होना) land which is given to them by government & pay tax.
3.       In villages there are people with land ownership (स्वामित्व) but there are many who are landless.
4.       Urban people own (मालिक होना) plots, houses and other property.
5.       Plantation (बाग), pasture (चारागाह) lands, ponds (तालाब), water in wells etc. are some of the examples of resources ownership by individuals.


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Community Owned Resources: -
1.       There are resources which are available to all the members of the community.
2.       Village commons (grazing (चरागाह) grounds, burial (दफन करना) grounds, village ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds in urban areas are available to all the people living there.
National Resources:-
1.       Technically, all the resources belong to the nation.
2.       The country has legal (कानूनी) powers to acquire (प्राप्त करना) even private property for public good.
3.       Like roads, canals, railways being constructed on fields owned by some individuals
4.       Urban Development Authorities get empowered (अधिकार देना) by the government to acquire land.
5.       All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land within the political boundaries and oceanic area upto 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from the coast termed as territorial water and resources therein belong to the nation.


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International Resources:-
1.       There are international institutions which regulate (नियंत्रित करना) some resources.
2.       The oceanic resources beyond 200 km of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean.
3.       No individual country can use these without the permission of international institutions.

On the Basis of the Status of Development
Potential Resources:-
1.       Resources which are found in a region, but have not been used
2.       E.g., the western parts of India particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous (बहुत अधिक) potential (संभावना) for the development of wind and solar energy, but so far these have not been developed properly.
Developed Resources:-
1.       Resources which are surveyed (निरीक्षण करना) and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation.
2.       The development of resources depends on technology and level of their feasibility (होने की संभावना).
Stock:-
1.       Materials in the environment which can fulfill the needs of human but human beings do not have the proper technology to use these, are called stock.
2.       E.g., water is a compound of two inflammable (ज्वलनशील) gases; hydrogen (by separating can be used as fuel) and oxygen, which can be used as a rich source of energy.
3.       But we do not have the required technical ‘know-how’ to use them for this purpose.


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Reserves (सुरक्षित रखना):-
1.       These are the sub part of the stock, which can be used with the help of existing technology but their use has not been started.
2.       These can be used for future requirements.
3.       River water can be used for generating hydroelectric power but presently, it is being utilised only to a limited extent.
4.       Thus, the water in the dams, forests etc. is a reserve which can be used in the future.
DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES
1.       Resources are important for human survival (जीवित रहना) as well as for maintaining the quality of life.
2.       It was believed that resources are free gifts of nature.
3.       As a result, human beings used them indiscriminately (अंधाधुंध) and this has led to the following major problems.
·         Depletion (कमी) of resources for satisfying the greed (लालच) of few individuals
·         Accumulation (ढेर) of resources in few hands, which, in turn, divided the society into two groups i.e. haves and have nots or rich and poor.
·         Indiscriminate (अंधाधुंध) exploitation (शोषण) of resources has increased to global ecological (पर्यावरणीय) crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.
4.       If the present trend of resource depletion by a few individuals and countries continues, the future of our planet is in danger.
5.       Therefore, resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life.

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RESOURCE PLANNING
1.       Planning is the widely accepted strategy for proper use of resources.
2.       It has importance in a country like India, which has enormous (विशाल) variety in the availability of resources.
3.       There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient (कमी) in some other resources.
4.       E.g., states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.
5.       Arunachal Pradesh has abundance (भरमार) of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.
6.       The state of Rajasthan is very well endowed (प्रदान करना) with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.
7.       The cold desert of Ladakh is relatively isolated (अलग) from the rest of the country.
8.       It has very rich cultural heritage but it is deficient in water, infrastructure and some vital minerals.
9.       This calls for balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional and local levels.


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Resource Planning in India
1.                   Identification and make a list of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying (सर्वेक्षण), mapping and qualitative (गुणात्मक) and quantitative (मात्रात्मक) estimation and measurement of the resources. 
2.                   To set up a planning structure with proper technology, skill and institution for implementing resource development plans.
3.                   Matching the resource development plans with national development plans.
4.                   India has started efforts for achieving the goals of resource planning right from the First Five Year Plan launched after Independence.
Conservation of Resources:
1.       Resources are important for any developmental activity.
2.       But unreasonable consumption (खर्च) and over-utilisation of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems.
3.       To overcome these problems, resource conservation (सुरक्षा) at various levels is important.
4.       This had been the main concern of the leaders and thinkers in the past.
5.       E.g., Gandhiji told his concern (चिंता) about resource conservation in these words: “There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed (लालच).”
6.       He placed the greedy (लालची) and selfish (स्वार्थी) individuals and exploitative (शोषण) nature of modern technology as the root cause for resource depletion (कमी) at the global level.
7.       He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by the masses (जनसमूह).


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LAND RESOURCES
1.       Land is a natural resource of utmost (अधिकतम) importance.
2.       It supports natural vegetation (वनस्पति), wild life (वन्य जीव-जंतु), human life, economic activities, transport and communication systems.
3.       India has land under a variety of relief features - mountains, plateaus, plains and islands.
4.       About 43 % of the land area is plain, which provides facilities for agriculture and industry.
5.       Mountains cover 30 % of the total surface area of the country and ensure perennial (बहुवर्षीय) flow of some rivers, provide facilities for tourism.
6.       About 27 % of the area of the country is the plateau region & rich in minerals, fossil fuels and forests.
             
                     

LAND UTILISATION
Land resources are used for the following purposes:
1. Forests
2. Land not available for cultivation (खेती)
(a) Barren (बंजर) and waste land
(b) Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.
3. Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)
(a) Permanent pastures (चारागाह) and grazing land,
(b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (बाग) (not included in net sown area),
(c) Cultruable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).
4. Fallow lands
(a) Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year),
(b) Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).
5. Net sown (बोया हुआ) area - Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.
LAND USE PATTERN IN INDIA
1.       Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq km.
2.       Land data is available only for 93 % of the total area because there is no information of land of most of the north-east states except Assam.
3.       Moreover, some areas of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have also not been surveyed.
4.       The land under permanent pasture (चरागाह) has also decreased.
5.       It will be difficulty to feed our huge cattle (पशु) population on this pasture land.
6.       Most of the other than the current fallow lands is either of poor quality or the cost of cultivation of such land is very high.
7.       Hence, these lands are cultivated once or twice in about two to three years.
8.       If these are included in the net sown (बोया हुआ) area then the percentage of NSA in India comes to about 54 % of the total reporting area.
9.       The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another.
10.   It is over 80 % of the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 % in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands.
11.   Forest area in the country is very less than the desired 33 % of geographical area outlined (सीमांकित) by National Forest Policy (1952).
12.   A part of the land is termed as waste land (includes rocky, arid (सूखा) and desert areas) and land put to other non-agricultural (includes settlements, roads, railways, industry) uses.
13.   Continuous use of land over a long time without taking proper measures to conserve (सुरक्षित रखना) and manage it, resulted in land degradation which increase serious problems for the society and the environment.
LAND DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION MEASURES
1.       95 % of our basic needs for food, shelter and clothing are obtained from land.
2.       Human activities have brought about degradation of land as well as gave power to natural forces to cause damage to land.
3.       At present, there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India.
4.       Approximately, 28 % of it belongs to the forest degraded area, 56 % of it is water eroded area and the rest is affected by saline and alkaline deposits.
5.       Some human activities such as deforestation, over grazing, mining (खनन) and quarrying (खदान) caused to land degradation.
6.       Mining sites are abandoned (छोड़ देना) after excavation (खुदाई) work is complete leaving deep scars (गड्ढा).
7.       In states like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa deforestation due to mining have caused serious land degradation.
8.       In states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation.
9.       In the states of Punjab, Haryana, western UP, over irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging (Productivity of the land gets reduced due to the high water table) leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
10.   Many ways to solve the problems of land degradation - Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help to some extent.
11.   Planting of shelter belts of plants, control on over grazing, stabilisation of sand dunes (टीला) by growing thorny (कांटेदार) bushes (झाड़ी) is some of the methods to prevent (रोकना) land degradation.
12.   Proper management of waste lands, control of mining activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial waste water and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas.
SOIL AS A RESOURCE
1.       Soil is the most important renewable natural resource.
2.       It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
3.       It takes millions of years to form.
4.       Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate (जलवायु), vegetation (वनस्पति) and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
5.       Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers etc. contribute to make soil.
6.       Soil also consists of organic (humus (खाद-मिट्टी)) and inorganic materials
7.       Soils of India can be classified in different types.
Alluvial Soils
1.       This is the most widely spread (फैलना) and important soil.
2.       In fact, the entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil.
3.       These have been deposited by 3 Himalayan river systems– the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
4.       These soils also extend (फैलना) in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
5.       Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers.
6.       The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt (मिट्टी या रेत) and clay.
7.       According to their age alluvial soils can be classified as old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar).
8.       The bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar.
9.       Khadar has more fine particles and is more fertile (उपजाऊ) than the bangar.
10.   Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile & good for the growth of sugarcane (गन्ना), paddy (धान), wheat and other cereal (अनाज) and pulse (दाल) crops.
Black Soil
1.       These soils are also known as regur soils.
2.       Black soil is good for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil.
3.       This type of soil is spread over northwest Deccan plateau and is made up of lava flows.
4.       They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and extend in the south east direction along the Godavari and the Krishna valleys.
5.       They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture (नमी).
6.       In addition, they are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime & poor in phosphoric contents.
7.       These soils are sticky (चिपचिपा) when wet (गीली) and difficult to work & started cultivation immediately after the first shower (वर्षा) or during the pre-monsoon period.
Red and Yellow Soils
1.       Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
2.       Yellow and red soils are also found in parts of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the Western Ghats.
3.       These soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion (फैलाव) of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
4.       It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated (जल मिश्रित) form.
Laterite Soil
1.       Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘later’ which means brick.
2.       The laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall.
3.       This is the result of intense leaching (because of more wet & loss its salt & nutrients) due to heavy rain.
4.       Humus (खाद) content of the soil is low because most of the micro organisms, like bacteria, get destroyed due to high temperature.
5.       Laterite soils are suitable for cultivation with enough manures (खाद) and fertilizers (खाद).
6.       These soils are mainly found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and the hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.
7.       This soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee.
8.       Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are more suitable for crops like cashew nut (काजू).
Arid Soils
1.       Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
2.       They are generally sandy (रेतीला) and saline in nature.
3.       In some areas the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating (वाष्पित हो जाना) the water.
4.       Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks (कमी) humus (खाद) and moisture (नमी).
5.       After proper irrigation (सिंचाई) these soils become cultivable.
Forest Soils
1.       These soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rain forests are available.
2.       They are loamy (चिकनी मिट्टी) and silty in valley sides and coarse (मोटा) grained (कण) in the upper slopes.
3.       In the snow covered areas of Himalayas, these soils are acidic with low humus content.
4.       The soils found in the lower parts of the valleys particularly on the river terraces (बांध) and alluvial fans are fertile.


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Soil Erosion  
1.       The removal of the upper layer of soil is called soil erosion.
2.       Soil erosion is due to human activities like deforestation, over-grazing, construction and mining etc., while natural forces like wind, glacier and water.
3.       Due to human interference, this balance between the soil formation & soil erosion by natural process gets affected (प्रभावित होना).
4.       The land becomes unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land.
5.       In the Chambal basin such lands are called ravines.
6.       Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large areas & flow down from a slope.
7.       In such cases the top soil is washed away & this is known as sheet erosion.
8.       Wind blows & take away (ले जाना) flat land soil known as wind erosion.
9.       Soil erosion is also caused due to defective methods of farming.


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Soil Conservation
1.       Soil Conservation can prevent (रोकना) of soil loss from erosion by number of activities.
2.       Afforestation – Growing more & more trees to create a forest which helps to prevent top soil from erosion.
3.       Terrace farming - growing crops on hills or mountains by cutting it like steps or stairs to overcome soil erosion by reducing the speed of water
4.       Strip cropping - Large areas can be divided into strips & by growing grass between the crops & these breaks up the force of the wind.
5.       Shelter belts - Planting lines of trees to decrease speed of winds.





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