Class – 10th   Chapter 3
Water Resources
1.       Approximately, 71 % of the earth’s surface is covered with water.
2.       Only 3 % (70% - Glaciers & ice caps (Antarctica, Greenland and the mountainous regions) and 30% - ground water) of the total available water is a freshwater.
3.       A very small proportion of freshwater is effectively available for human use.
4.       India receives only 4% of world’s precipitation (Rainfall)
5.       By 2025, it is predicted that large parts of India will join countries or regions having absolute water scarcity (कमी).
WATER SCARCITY AND THE NEED FOR WATER CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
1.       When we speak of water shortages, we think about having low rainfall area or drought (सूखा) prone areas, deserts of Rajasthan (where women collecting & storing water with ‘matkas’)
2.       So the availability of water resources varies over space and time and depends in seasonal and annual precipitation
3.       Water scarcity (कमी) – Increasing population, Increasing business activities, over-exploitation (उपयोग), excessive (हद से ज़्यादा) use and unequal access to water among different social groups
4.       A large population requires more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food.
5.       For higher food-grain production, water resources are being over-exploited to expand (फैलाना) irrigated areas for dry-season agriculture.
6.       Many farmers have wells and tube-wells in their farms for irrigation to increase their produce due to this, falling groundwater levels, adversely (विरुद्ध) affecting water availability and food security
7.       Many MNCs (Multinational Corporations) are also responsible for contaminating (दूषित करना) the fresh water.
8.       They require more power to run them
9.       Much of this energy comes from hydroelectric power which contributes approximately 22 % of the total electricity produced.
10.   Increasing urban centres & dense populations are also responsible for the water scarcity.
11.   Most of these housing societies or colonies have their own groundwater pumping devices to meet their water needs.
12.   Much of fresh water is polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals, pesticides (कीटनाशक) and fertilisers (खाद) used in agriculture, thus, making it dangerous (खतरनाक) for human use.


MULTI- PURPOSE RIVER PROJECTS AND INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
1.       In ancient times, constructing sophisticated hydraulic structures like dams built of stone rubble, reservoirs (कुण्ड) or lakes, embankments (बांध) and canals for irrigation.
2.       We have continued this tradition in modern India by building dams in most of our river basins.


Hydraulic Structures in Ancient India
1.       In the first century B.C., Sringaverapura near Allahabad had sophisticated water harvesting system channelling the flood water of the river Ganga.
2.       During the time of Chandragupta Maurya, dams, lakes and irrigation systems were extensively built.
3.       Evidences of sophisticated irrigation works have also been found in Kalinga, (Odisha), Nagarjunakonda (Andhra Pradesh), Bennur (Karnataka), Kolhapur (Maharashtra), etc.
4.       In the 11th Century, Bhopal Lake, one of the largest artificial lakes of its time was built.
5.       In the 14th Century, the tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi was constructed by Iltutmish for supplying water to Siri Fort area.


Dams
1.       Dams were traditionally built to impound (बन्द करना) rivers and ...
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