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Constitutional Design with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 9 Chapter 3 Political Science ||
Chapter - 3
DEMOCRATIC CONSTITUTION IN SOUTH AFRICA
Mandela was sued (मुक़दमाचलाना)for treason (देशद्रोह) by the white South African government
and seven other leaders were sentenced (सज़ादेना) to life imprisonment (कैद)
in 1964 for opposing (विरोधकरना)
the apartheid (रंगभेद)
in his country.
spent the next 28 years in South Africa’s most dreaded (डरावना)
was the racial (जातीय) discrimination (भेदभाव)
unique to South Africa.
white Europeans imposed (थोपना)
this system on South Africa.
the 17th and 18th centuries, the trading companies from
Europe occupied it with arms (हथियार)
and force, as they occupied India.
a large number of ‘whites’ had settled in South Africa and became the local
system of apartheid divided the people according to skin colour.
people of South Africa are black in colour.
made up about 3/4th of the population and were called ‘blacks’.
were 3rd group of people of mixed races (जाति)
who were called ‘coloured’ and people who migrated (एकजगहछोड़करदूसरेकोजाना)
white rulers treated all nonwhites as inferiors (नीचा).
non-whites did not have voting rights.
were not allowed to live in white areas.
could work in white areas only if they had permission.
buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls,
theatres, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, were all separate (अलग)
for the whites and blacks.
6.The white minority was worried to protect its
privileges (विशेषाधिकार) and property.
7.After long negotiations (बातचीत) both
parties agreed to a compromise (समझौताकरना).
8.The whites agreed to the principle of majority
rule and that of one person one vote.
9.They also agreed to accept some basic rights
for the poor and the workers.
10.They agreed that the majority would not take
away (लेजाना) the
property of the white minority.
11.This compromise was not easy.
12.To build trust, one way was to write down all
these rules how the rulers are to be chosen in future and what power have the
elected governments and which task they will do.
13.They also agreed that these rules will be
supreme, that no government will be able to ignore these.
14.This set of basic rules is called a
15.This applies to all governments, any
association (सभा), club in
any area, a cooperative society or a political party.
16.Constitution is the supreme law that
determines the relationship among people living in a territory (called
citizens) and also the relationship between the people and government.
17.A constitution does many things:
·First, it generates a degree of trust and
coordination (तालमेल) among the
people to live together;
·Second, it specifies (स्पष्टरूपसेबताना) how the
government will be constituted and their powers to take decisions;
·Third, it lays down limits on the powers of
the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are; and
·Fourth, it expresses the aspirations (अरमान) of the
people about creating a good society.
MAKING OF THE
making of the constitution for a huge (विशाल)
and diverse (विभिन्न)
country like India was not an easy task.
country was born through a partition (बंटवारा) on the basis of religious (धार्मिक)
was a traumatic (ज़ख़मी-संबंधी)
experience for the people of India and Pakistan.
10 lakh people were killed on both sides of the border in partition related
was another problem.
British had given the power to the princely states to decide whether they
wanted to merge (मिलना)
with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.
merger of these princely states was a difficult task.
makers were feared that will the Indians accept this constitution or not but
they accepted it.
The path to Constitution
constitution makers already know which type of constitution Indians wanted.
1928, Motilal Nehru and 8 other Congress leaders and in 1931, the resolution at
the Karachi of the INC session drafted (लिखना)
a constitution for India with all basic rights including of universal adult
franchise, right to freedom and equality and to protecting the rights of
British rule had given voting rights only to a few Indians and they gained
experience working under legislative (विधान-संबंधी)
institutions of Britishers & it helped while forming Indian constitution.
is why the Indian constitution adopted many institutional details and
procedures from colonial laws like the Government of India Act, 1935.
constitution adopted many good policies and laws from other countries
each step they were questioning whether these things suited our country.
these factors contributed to the making of our Constitution.
The Constituent Assembly
drafting of the document called the constitution was done by an assembly of
elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly.
to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946.
first meeting was held in 9 December 1946.
after, the country was divided into India and Pakistan.
Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India
and that of Pakistan.
Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian constitution had 299 members.
Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949 but it came into effect
on 26 January 1950.
we celebrate January 26 as Republic Day every year.
should we accept the Constitution made by this Assembly more than 50 years ago?
countries of the world have had to rewrite their Constitution after short
period because the basic rules were not accepted to all major social groups or
some other countries, the Constitution exists as a only piece of paper.
experience of our Constitution is different.
Indian constitution made by different type of people who belongs to different
second reason for accepting the Constitution is that the Constituent Assembly
represented the people of India.
provides equality to all the regions of the country.
Assembly was dominated (प्रमुखहोना)
by the Indian National Congress who did lead India’s freedom struggle.
the Congress itself included a variety of political groups and opinions (ख़याल)
which are from different language groups, castes, classes and religions.
some basic principles were decided and agreed upon.
a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution
than 200 amendments were considered.
members deliberated (विचार-विमर्शकरना)
for 114 days spread over three years.
document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been
recorded and preserved.
are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’.
GUIDING VALUES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION
The Dream and the Promise
of you may have noticed a name missing from the sketches of the makers of the
constitution: Mahatma Gandhi.
was not a member of the Constituent Assembly.
there were many members who followed his vision.
1931, in his magazine Young
India, he told what he wanted the Constitution to do:
should give equal rights
should be no foreign rule & elimination (हटाना)
cannot be discriminated (अंतरकरना) on the grounds of caste, religion and gender. Social inequalities
have to be reduced. Government should work for the welfare (कल्याण) of all, especially of the disadvantaged groups.
us should behave as if we are members of the same family. No one should treat a
citizen as inferior (नीचा).
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