Constitutional Design with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 9 Chapter 3 Political Science ||


Chapter - 3
CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN
DEMOCRATIC CONSTITUTION IN SOUTH AFRICA
1.       Nelson Mandela was sued (मुक़दमा चलाना) for treason (देशद्रोह) by the white South African government
2.       He and seven other leaders were sentenced (सज़ा देना) to life imprisonment (कैद) in 1964 for opposing (विरोध करना) the apartheid (रंगभेद) regime (शासन) in his country.
3.       He spent the next 28 years in South Africa’s most dreaded (डरावना) prison (कैद), Robben Island.
Struggle against apartheid
1.       Apartheid (रंगभेद) was the racial (जातीय) discrimination (भेदभाव) unique to South Africa.
2.       The white Europeans imposed (थोपना) this system on South Africa.
3.       During the 17th and 18th centuries, the trading companies from Europe occupied it with arms (हथियार) and force, as they occupied India.
4.       But a large number of ‘whites’ had settled in South Africa and became the local rulers
5.       The system of apartheid divided the people according to skin colour.
6.       The native (मूल निवासी) people of South Africa are black in colour.
7.       They made up about 3/4th of the population and were called ‘blacks’.
8.       There were 3rd group of people of mixed races (जाति) who were called ‘coloured’ and people who migrated (एक जगह छोड़कर दूसरे को जाना) from India.
9.       The white rulers treated all nonwhites as inferiors (नीचा).
10.   The non-whites did not have voting rights.
11.   Blacks were not allowed to live in white areas.
12.   They could work in white areas only if they had permission.
13.   Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, were all separate (अलग) for the whites and blacks.
14.   This was called segregation (पृथकतावाद or अकेलापन).
15.   Blacks and whites had separate churches.
16.   Blacks could not form associations (संघ) or protest (विरोध करना) against the terrible (ख़ौफ़नाक) treatment.
17.   Those who protested were killed or sent to jail.
18.   Since 1950, the blacks coloured and Indians fought against the apartheid system.
19.   The African National Congress (ANC) led the struggle against the policies of segregation.
20.   This included many workers’ unions and the Communist Party.
21.   Many whites also joined the ANC to oppose (विरोध करना) apartheid and played a leading role in this struggle.
22.   Several countries criticized (निंदा करना) apartheid system.
23.   But the white racist (जातिवादी) government continued to rule by torturing and killing thousands of black and coloured people.
              




Towards a new constitution
1.       As protests and struggles against apartheid had increased, the government realised that they could no longer keep the blacks under their control.
2.       The white regime (प्रशासन) changed its policies.
3.       Discriminatory (चुनाव-संबंधी) laws were ...

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