Democracy in the Contemporary world with notes in hindi || Class 9 Chapter 1 Politics ||








Chapter 1
Democracy in the Contemporary World
TWO TALES OF DEMOCRACY
1.       Salvador Allende was the President of Chile (in South America).
2.       He gave the speech on the morning of 11 September 1973, when his government was overthrown (तख्ता पलट देना) by the military.
3.       Allende was the founder (संस्थापक) leader of the Socialist Party of Chile.
4.       He led (नेतृत्व करना) the “Popular Unity” coalition (गठबंधन) to victory in the presidential election in 1970.
5.       After being elected the President, Allende had taken several policy decisions to help the poor and the workers.
6.       These included reform (सुधार) of the educational system, free milk for children and redistribution of land to the landless farmers.
7.       He stopped foreign companies to taking away (ले जाना) natural resources like copper from the country.
8.       The landlords, the rich and the Church opposed (खिलाफ़) his policies.
9.       Some other political parties in Chile also opposed his government.



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Military Coup of 1973
1.       On the morning of 11 September 1973, the military took over (क़ब्ज़ा कर लेना) the seaport.
2.       The Defence Minister was arrested by the military when he arrived (पहुँचना) at his office.
3.       The military commanders asked (पूछना) the President to resign (इस्तीफा देना).
4.       Allende refused (मना करना) to resign or leave (छोड़ना) the country.
5.       But realising (अहसास होना) the danger to the country and to his life, he gave speech on the radio to the people.
6.       Then the military surrounded (घेरना) the President’s house and started bombing it.
7.       President Allende died in the military attack.
8.       This was the sacrifice (बलिदान) he was talking about in his last speech.
9.       A government elected by people was overthrown (तख्ता पलट देना) by the military through conspiracy (षड्यंत्र) and violence (हिंसा).
10.   In Chile on 11 September 1973, it was a military coup (तख्ता पलट).
11.   General Augusto Pinochet, an Army general, led (नेतृत्व करना) the coup.
12.   The government of the USA was unhappy with Allende’s rule and they helped and funded to the coup.
13.   Pinochet became the President of the country and ruled it for the next 17 years.
14.   They could do as they wanted and no one could question them.
15.   Thus a military dictatorship (तानाशाही) was established in Chile.
16.   Pinochet’s government tortured (दुःख देना) and killed several of those who supported Allende and those who wanted democracy to be restored (पुन: स्थापित).
17.   These included General Alberto Bachelet of the Chilean Air Force and many other officers who refused to join the coup.
18.   General Bachelet’s wife and daughter were put in prison (जेल) and tortured.
19.   More than 3,000 people were killed by the military & many more were ‘missing’.
20.   No one knows what happened to them.


Restoration of Democracy
1.       Pinochet’s military dictatorship came to an end after he decided to hold a referendum (जनमत-संग्रह) in 1988.
2.       He was confident that in this referendum, the people would say ‘yes’ to his continuing in power.
3.       But the people of Chile had not forgotten (भुलाना) their democratic traditions (परंपरा).
4.       Their vote was an important outcome (नतीजा).
5.       This led to Pinochet losing first his political and then his military powers.
6.       People took revenge (बदला लेना) from the felony (अपराध); cowardice (कायरता) and treason (देशद्रोह) & punished them.
7.       Political freedom was restored.
8.       After that Chile has held 4 presidential elections in which different political parties have participated.
9.       Slowly, the army’s role in the country’s government has been eliminated (हटा देना).
10.   The elected governments that came to power ordered inquiries (जांच पड़ताल) into Pinochet’s rule.
11.   These inquiries showed that his government was very brutal (निर्दय) & very corrupt.
12.   General Bachelet’s daughter, Michelle Bachelet, was elected President of Chile in January 2006.
13.   A medical doctor and a moderate socialist, Michelle became the first woman to be a Defence Minister in Latin America.
14.   In the presidential elections she defeated one of Chile’s richest men.

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Democracy in Poland
1.       In 1980, Poland was ruled by the Polish United Workers’ Party.
2.       This was one of the many communist parties that ruled in several countries of East Europe at that time.
3.       In these countries no other political party was allowed to function.
4.       The people could not freely choose the leaders of the communist party or the government.
5.       Those who spoke against the leaders or the party or the government were put in prison (जेल).
6.       The government in Poland was supported and controlled by the government of the Soviet Union (USSR), a vast (विशाल) and powerful communist state.
7.       On 14 August 1980, the workers of Lenin Shipyard (पोत-कारखाना) in the city of Gdansk went on a strike (हड़ताल).
8.       The shipyard was owned by the government.
9.       In fact all the factories and big property in Poland were owned (अधिकारी होना) by the government.
10.   The strike began with a demand to take back a crane operator, a woman worker, who was unjustly (अन्याय से) dismissed from service.
11.   This strike was illegal (ग़ैरक़ानूनी), because trade unions independent of the ruling party were not allowed in Poland.
12.   As the strike continued, a former electrician of the shipyard, Lech Walesa, joined the strikers.
13.   He was dismissed (निकाल देना) from service in 1976 for demanding higher pay.
14.   Walesa soon emerged (उभरना) as the leader of the striking workers.
15.   The strike began to spread (फैलना) across the whole city.
16.   Now the workers increasing their demands
17.   They wanted the right to form independent trade unions.
18.   They also demanded the release (छोड़ना) of political prisoners (क़ैदी) and an end to censorship on press.
19.   The movement (आंदोलन) became so popular that the government had to agree.
20.   The workers led by Walesa signed a 21-point agreement with the government that ended their strike.
21.   The government agreed to form independent trade unions and their right to strike.
22.   After the Gdansk agreement was signed, a new trade union called Solidarity was formed.
23.   It was the first time an independent trade union was formed in any of the communist states.
24.   Within a year, Solidarity spread (फैलना) across Poland and had about one crore members.
25.   Revelations (पर्दाफ़ाश) of widespread corruption and mismanagement in the government increased their worries (चिन्ता).
26.   The government, led by General Jaruzelski imposed (लागू करना) martial law in December 1981.
27.   Thousands of Solidarity members were put in prison.
28.   Freedom to organise, protest (विरोध करना) and express opinions (विचार) was once again taken away (छीनना).
29.   Another wave of strikes, again organised by Solidarity, began in 1988.
30.   This time the Polish government was weaker, the support from Soviet Union was temporary and the economy was in decline.
31.   Another agreement with Walesa resulted in April 1989 for free elections.
32.   Solidarity contested (चुनाव लड़ना) all the 100 seats of the Senate and won 99 of them.
33.   In October 1990, Poland had its first presidential elections in which more than one party could contest.
34.   Walesa was elected President of Poland.

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Two Features of Democracy
1.       We have read two different kinds of real life stories.
2.       Let us compare the two non-democratic governments in these stories.
3.       Chile was ruled by a military dictator, while Poland was ruled by a political party.
4.       The government of Poland claimed that it was ruling on behalf of the working classes.
5.       Pinochet made no such claim and openly favoured big capitalists (साहुकार).
6.       Yet both had some common features:
·         The people could not choose or change their rulers.
·         There was no real freedom to express one’s opinions, form political associations and organise protests and political action.
7.       The 3 democratic governments identified above — Allende’s Chile, Walesa’s Poland and Bachelet’s Chile — are different in their view towards social and economic matters.
8.       Allende preferred government control on all big industries and the economy.
9.       Walesa wanted the market to be free of government interference.
10.   Bachelet preferred the middle path on this issue
11.   Yet these 3 governments shared some basic features.
12.   Power was exercised by governments elected by the people and not by the army, unelected leaders or any external power.
13.   The people enjoyed some basic political freedoms.
14.   From these two stories let us draw a rough way to identify a democracy.
15.   Democracy is a form of government that allows people to choose their rulers.
·         only leaders elected by people should rule the country, and
·         People have the freedom to express views, freedom to organise and freedom to protest.

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THE CHANGING MAP OF DEMOCRACY
1.       20th century was full of the kind of stories we have read above: stories of transition to democracy, challenges to democracy, military coups, and struggles (संघर्ष करना) of the people to bring back democracy.
2.       Let us use the basic features we noted earlier and identify democracies among different countries of the world.
3.       This is what the 3 maps shown here do.
4.       The first map shows the countries that were democratic in 1950, a few years after the end of the Second World War.
5.       This map also shows countries that had already become democratic by 1900.
6.       The second map shows democratic regimes (शासन) in 1975, after most of the colonies had gained independence.
7.       Finally, we take another step forward at democracies in the year 2000, at the beginning of the 21st century.




PHASES IN THE EXPANSION OF DEMOCRACY
The Beginning
1.       The story of modern democracy began at least two centuries ago.
2.       You may have read the chapter on the French Revolution of 1789.
3.       This popular revolt (विद्रोह) did not establish a secure (सुरक्षित) and stable democracy in France.
4.       Throughout the 19th century, democracy in France was overthrown (नष्ट कर दना) and restored several times.
5.       But the French Revolution inspired (प्रेरणा देना) many struggles (संघर्ष) for democracy all over Europe.
6.       In Britain, the progress towards democracy started much before the French Revolution & it was very slow.
7.       Through the 18th and the 19th centuries, series of political events reduced (कम करना) the power of monarchy (राज शासन) and feudal (सामंती) lords.
8.       The right to vote was granted to more and more people.
9.       Around the same time as the French Revolution, the British colonies (USA) in North America declared themselves independent in 1776.
10.   They adopted a democratic constitution in 1787.
11.   But here too the right to vote was limited to very few men.
12.   In the 19th century struggles (संघर्ष) for democracy often for political equality, freedom and justice (न्याय)
13.   One major demand was the right for every adult citizen to vote.
14.   Many European countries that were becoming more democratic did not initially allow all people to vote.
15.   In some countries only people owning (मालिक होना) property had the right to vote.
16.   Often women did not have the right to vote.
17.   In USA, the blacks all over the country could not vote until 1965.
18.   Those struggling for democracy wanted right to all adults — men or women, rich or poor, white or black.
19.   This is called ‘universal adult franchise’ or ‘universal suffrage’.
20.   Till 1900 New Zealand was the only country where every adult had voting right.
21.   Early democracies were established in Europe, North America and Latin America.


End of Colonialism
1.       For a very long time most countries in Asia and Africa was colonies under the control of European nations.
2.       People of the colonized countries had to struggles (संघर्ष करना) to achieve (प्राप्त करना) independence.
3.       They not only wanted to get freedom (आज़ादी) from their colonial masters, but also wanted to choose their future leaders.
4.       People started a nationalist struggle to liberate (मुक्त करना) the country from the colonial rule.
5.       Many countries became democracies immediately (तुरन्त) after the end of the Second World War in 1945.
6.       India achieved Independence in 1947 and moved on its journey to transform itself from slave (गुलाम) country to a democracy.
7.       It continues to be a democracy.
8.       Most former colonies did not have such a good experience.
9.       The case of Ghana, a country in western Africa, having the more experience of former (पूर्व) colonies
10.   It was a British colony & the named Gold Coast.
11.   It became independent in 1957.
12.   It was among the first countries in Africa to gain independence.
13.   It inspired (प्रेरणा देना) other African countries to struggle for freedom.
14.   Kwame Nkrumah, son of a goldsmith (सुनार) and himself a teacher, was active in the independence struggle of his country.
15.   After independence, Nkrumah became the first prime minister and then the president of Ghana.
16.   He was a friend of Jawaharlal Nehru and an inspiration (प्रेरणा) for democrats (लोकतन्त्रवादी) in Africa.
17.   But unlike Nehru, he got himself elected president for life.
18.   Soon after, in 1966, he was overthrown (तख्ता पलट देना) by the military
19.   Like Ghana, most countries that became democracies but could not remain democracies for long.

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Recent phase
1.       The next big change towards democracy came after 1980, as democracy was revived (पुनर्जीवित) in several countries of Latin America.
2.       The disintegration (टूटना) of the Soviet Union accelerated (तेज़ होना) this process.
3.       Poland and several other countries became free from the control of the Soviet Union during 1989-90.
4.       They chose to become democracies.
5.       Finally the Soviet Union itself broke down in 1991.
6.       The Soviet Union comprised (बने हुए होना) 15 Republics.
7.       All the constituent Republics emerged as independent countries.
8.       Most of them became democracies.
9.       After Soviet Union, led to a big change in the political map of the world
10.   In this period major changes also took place in India’s neighbourhood.
11.   Pakistan and Bangladesh made a transition (परिवर्तन होना) from army rule to democracy in 1990s.
12.   In Nepal, the king gave up (त्यागना) many of his powers to become a constitutional monarch (राजा) to be guided by elected leaders.
13.   However, these changes were not permanent.
14.   In 1999 General Musharraf brought back army rule in Pakistan.
15.   In 2005 the new king of Nepal dismissed the elected government and took back political freedoms from the people.
16.   Yet the overall trend in this period points to more and more countries turning to democracy.
17.   By 2005, about 140 countries were holding multi-party elections.
18.   More than 80 previously non-democratic countries moved towards democracy since 1980.
19.   But, even today, there are many countries where people cannot express their opinion freely.
20.   They still cannot elect their leaders & take big decisions about their present and future life.
21.   One such country is Myanmar, previously known as Burma.
22.   It gained freedom from colonial rule in 1948 and became a democracy.
23.   But the democratic rule ended in 1962 with a military coup.
24.   In 1990 elections were held for the first time after almost 30 years.
25.   The National League for Democracy, led by Aung San Suu Kyi, won the election.
26.   But the military leaders of Myanmar refused (मना करना) to leave office and did not recognise (मान्यता देना) the election results.
27.   Instead, the military arrested the elected pro-democracy leaders, including Suu Kyi.
28.   Anyone caught publicly raising voice against the regime (प्रशासन) can be sentenced (सज़ा देना) up to 20 years in prison.
29.   Due to the worst ( सबसे खराब) policies of the military-ruled in Myanmar, about 6 to 10 lakh people in that country have been uprooted (बोरिया-बिस्तर समेटना) from their homes and have taken shelter (शरण लेना) elsewhere.

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DEMOCRACY AT THE GLOBAL LEVEL
International Organisations
1.       There is no single World Government, but there are many institutions in the world that perform the functions like government.
2.       These organisations cannot command countries and citizens in a way a government can, but they do make rules & government should follow that rules.
3.       The United Nations (UN) is a global association of nations of the world to help cooperation (सहयोग) in international law, security, economic development and social equity.
4.       The UN Secretary General (António Guterres of Portugal) is its chief administrative officer.
5.       It’s UN to makes laws and rules to govern (निर्धारित करना) the seas that do not fall within the boundaries of any one country & takes steps to control environmental degradation (घटाना).
6.       When a country attacks another country in an unjust (अन्यायपूर्ण) manner then UN Security Council, an organ of the UN, is responsible for maintaining peace (शांति) and security (सुरक्षा) among countries.
7.       It can put together an international army and take action against the wrongdoer (अन्याय करने वाला).
8.       International Monetary Fund (IMF) & World Bank lends (उधार देना) money to governments when they need it.
9.       Before lending they ask the concerned government to show all its accounts and say to make changes in its economic policy.

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Are these decisions democratic?
1.       So, there are many institutions at the world level that perform some of the functions that a world government would perform.
2.       But we need to know just how democratic these organisations are.
3.       The yardstick (मापदंड) here is whether each of the countries has free and equal say in the decisions that affect (प्रभावित करना) them.
4.       Every one of the 193 member states (as on 1 September 2012) of the UN has one vote in the UN General Assembly.
5.       It meets in regular yearly sessions under a president elected from among the representatives of the member countries.
6.       General Assembly is like the parliament where all the discussion takes place.
7.       In that sense the UN would appear to be a very democratic organisation.
8.       But the General Assembly cannot take any decision about a conflict (लड़ाई) between different countries.
9.       The 15 member Security Council of the UN takes such important decisions.
10.   The Council has 5 permanent members – US, Russia, UK, France and China.
11.   10 other members are elected by the General Assembly for 2 year terms.
12.   The real power is with 5 permanent members.
13.   The permanent members, especially the US, contribute most of the money needed for the maintenance of the UN.
14.   Each permanent member has veto power.
15.   It means that the Council cannot take a decision if any permanent member says no to that decision.
16.   International Monetary Fund (IMF) is one of the biggest moneylenders (साहूकार) for any country in the world.
17.   Its 188 member states (as on 1 September 2012) do not have equal voting rights.
18.   The vote of each country is depends by how much money it has contributed to the IMF.
19.   More than 52% of the voting power in the IMF is in the hands of only 10 countries (US, Japan, Germany, France, UK, China, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Canada and Russia).
20.   The remaining 178 countries have very little say in how these international organisations take decisions.
21.   The World Bank has a similar system of voting.
22.   The President of the World Bank has always been a citizen of the US & nominated (नियुक्त करना) by the Treasury (ख़ज़ाना) Secretary (Finance Minister) of the US government.
23.   If you compare a country where some persons have a permanent position in the ministry and have the power to stop the decision of the entire parliament?
24.   Or a parliament where 5 % of the members hold a majority of votes?
25.   Would you call these democratic?
26.   In fact, while nations are becoming more democratic than they were earlier, international organisations are becoming less democratic.
27.   20 years ago there were two big powers in the world: the US and the Soviet Union.
28.   The competition and conflict between these two big powers and their allies kept a certain balance in all the global organisations. After the collapse (पतन) of the Soviet Union, the US appears to be the only superpower in the world.
29.   This American dominance (शासन) affects (प्रभावित करना) the working of international organisations.
30.   Over the last few years the people of different countries have come together without their governments’ support.
31.   They have formed global organisations against war and domination (वर्चस्व) of the world by a few countries and business companies.

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Democracy promotion
1.       Recently, many powerful countries in the world, particularly the USA, have taken on the task of democracy promotion in the rest of the world.
2.       They say that propagating (प्रचार करना) the values of democracy is not enough.
3.       In some cases powerful countries have launched armed attack on nondemocratic countries.
4.       Iraq is a country in Western Asia.
5.       It became independent from British rule in 1932.
6.       Three decades later there were a series of coups by military officers.
7.       Since 1968, it was ruled by Arab Socialist Ba’th Party (the Arabic word Ba’th means renaissance (पुनर्जागरण)).
8.       Saddam Hussein, a leading Ba’th party leader, played a key role in the 1968 coup that brought the party to power.
9.       This government abolished (समाप्त करना) traditional Islamic law and gave women the right to vote.
10.   After becoming the president of Iraq in 1979, Saddam ran a dictatorial (तानाशाही) government and suppressed (दबाना) any opposition to his rule.
11.   He was known to have got a number of political opponents killed and persons of ethnic (जातीय) minorities massacred (नरसंहार).
12.   The US and its allies (मित्र राष्ट्र) like Britain alleged (दलील देना) that Iraq had secret nuclear weapons and other ‘weapons of mass destruction’ which could create a big threat (ख़तरा) to the world.
13.   But when a UN team went to Iraq to search for such weapons, it did not find any.
14.   Still the US and its allies invaded (आक्रमण करना) Iraq, occupied it and removed Saddam Hussein from power in 2003.
15.   The US installed an interim (अंतरिम) government of its preference.
16.   The war against Iraq was not authorised by the UN Security Council.
17.   Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General, said that the US war on Iraq was illegal.

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