Democracy in the Contemporary world with notes in hindi || Class 9 Chapter 1 Politics ||

Chapter 1
Democracy in the Contemporary World
1.       Salvador Allende was the President of Chile (in South America).
2.       He gave the speech on the morning of 11 September 1973, when his government was overthrown (तख्ता पलट देना) by the military.
3.       Allende was the founder (संस्थापक) leader of the Socialist Party of Chile.
4.       He led (नेतृत्व करना) the “Popular Unity” coalition (गठबंधन) to victory in the presidential election in 1970.
5.       After being elected the President, Allende had taken several policy decisions to help the poor and the workers.
6.       These included reform (सुधार) of the educational system, free milk for children and redistribution of land to the landless farmers.
7.       He stopped foreign companies to taking away (ले जाना) natural resources like copper from the country.
8.       The landlords, the rich and the Church opposed (खिलाफ़) his policies.
9.       Some other political parties in Chile also opposed his government.

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Military Coup of 1973
1.       On the morning of 11 September 1973, the military took over (क़ब्ज़ा कर लेना) the seaport.
2.       The Defence Minister was arrested by the military when he arrived (पहुँचना) at his office.
3.       The military commanders asked (पूछना) the President to resign (इस्तीफा देना).
4.       Allende refused (मना करना) to resign or leave (छोड़ना) the country.
5.       But realising (अहसास होना) the danger to the country and to his life, he gave speech on the radio to the people.
6.       Then the military surrounded (घेरना) the President’s house and started bombing it.
7.       President Allende died in the military attack.
8.       This was the sacrifice (बलिदान) he was talking about in his last speech.
9.       A government elected by people was overthrown (तख्ता पलट देना) by the military through conspiracy (षड्यंत्र) and violence (हिंसा).
10.   In Chile on 11 September 1973, it was a military coup (तख्ता पलट).
11.   General Augusto Pinochet, an Army general, led (नेतृत्व करना) the coup.
12.   The government of the USA was unhappy with Allende’s rule and they helped and funded to the coup.
13.   Pinochet became the President of the country and ruled it for the next 17 years.
14.   They could do as they wanted and no one could question them.
15.   Thus a military dictatorship (तानाशाही) was established in Chile.
16.   Pinochet’s government tortured (दुःख देना) and killed several of those who supported Allende and those who wanted democracy to be restored (पुन: स्थापित).
17.   These included General Alberto Bachelet of the Chilean Air Force and many other officers who refused to join the coup.
18.   General Bachelet’s wife and daughter were put in prison (जेल) and tortured.
19.   More than 3,000 people were killed by the military & many more were ‘missing’.
20.   No one knows what happened to them.

Restoration of Democracy
1.       Pinochet’s military dictatorship came to an end after he decided to hold a referendum (जनमत-संग्रह) in 1988.
2.       He was confident that in this referendum, the people would say ‘yes’ to his continuing in power.
3.       But the people of Chile had not forgotten (भुलाना) their democratic traditions (परंपरा).
4.       Their vote was an important outcome (नतीजा).
5.       This led to Pinochet losing first his political and then his military powers.
6.       People took revenge (बदला लेना) from the felony (अपराध); cowardice (कायरता) and treason (देशद्रोह) & ...

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