Drainage with notes in hindi || Class 9 Chapter 3 Geography ||








Class – 9, Chapter 3
DRAINAGE
1.       The term drainage (पानी का निकास) describes the river system of an area.
2.       Small streams flowing from different directions come together to form the main river & drains into a large water body such as a lake or a sea or an ocean.
3.       The area drained by a single river system is called a drainage basin.
4.       Whereas elevated area, such as a mountain or upland, separates two drainage basins.
5.       Such an upland is known as a water divide.
                         



                       
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DRAINAGE SYSTEMS IN INDIA
1.       The Indian rivers are divided into two major groups:  (1) The Himalayan Rivers (2) The Peninsular Rivers
2.       Most of the Himalayan Rivers are perennial (बारहमासी) which means that they have water throughout the year.
3.       These rivers receive water from rain as well as from melted snow from the lofty (ऊंचा) mountains.
4.       The two major Himalayan rivers, the Indus and the Brahmaputra originate (निकलना) from the north of the mountain ranges.
5.       They have cut through the mountains making gorges.
6.       The Himalayan Rivers have long courses (रास्ता) from their source to the sea.
7.       They perform intensive erosional activity in their upper courses and carry huge loads of silt and sand.
8.       In the middle and the lower courses (रास्ता), these rivers form meanders (घूमते हुए बहना), oxbow lakes, and many other depositional features in their floodplains.
9.       They also have well-developed deltas
10.   A large number of the Peninsular Rivers are seasonal, as their flow is dependent on rainfall.
11.   During the dry season, even the large rivers have reduced (घटना) flow of water in their channels.
12.   The Peninsular Rivers have shorter and shallower (कम गहरा) courses.


The Himalayan Rivers
1.       The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
2.       These rivers are long, and are joined by many large and important tributaries.
3.       A river along with its tributaries may be called a river system.
The Indus River System
1.       The river Indus rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarowar.
2.       Flowing west, it enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir.
3.       Several tributaries, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok and the Hunza, join it in the Kashmir region.
4.       The Indus flows through Baltistan and Gilgit and emerges (निकलना) from the mountains at Attock.
5.       The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum join together to enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan
6.       Beyond (के परे) this, the Indus flows southwards reaching the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi & Total length is 2900 km
7.       1/3rd of the Indus basin is located in India in the states of J&K, Himachal Pradesh and the Punjab and the rest is in Pakistan.
  
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The Ganga River System
1.       The Ganga originates (निकलना) as Bhagirathi from the Gangotri glacier in Uttar Kashi District of Uttarakhand & joined by Alaknanda River at Devaprayag.
2.       From Devaprayag the river is called as Ganga.
3.       At Haridwar the Ganga emerges (निकलना) from the mountains on to the plains.
4.       The Ganga is joined by many tributaries from the Himalayas such as the Yamuna, the Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi.
5.       The river Yamuna rises from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas.
6.       It flows parallel to the Ganga and meets the Ganga at Allahabad.
7.       The Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi rise in the Nepal Himalaya.
8.       These rivers bring flood in the northern plains every year & damage (नष्ट करना) to life and property & also bring fertile (उपजाऊ) soil for good in agricultural lands.
9.       The main tributaries, which come from the peninsular uplands, are the Chambal, the Betwa and the Son.
10.   These rise from semi arid (शुष्क) areas, have shorter courses (रास्ता) and do not carry much water in them.
11.   Enlarged with the waters from its right and left bank tributaries, the Ganga flows eastwards till Farakka in West Bengal.
12.   This is the northernmost point of the Ganga delta.
13.   At Farraka, it bifurcates (दो शाखाओं में बांटना) into Bhagirathi-Hugli in West Bengal and Padma - Meghna in Bangladesh (joined by the Brahmaputra).
14.   This mighty river, with waters from the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra, flows into the Bay of Bengal.
15.   The delta formed by these rivers is known as the Sunderban delta.
16.   The length of the Ganga is over 2500 km.
17.   Ambala is located on the water divide between the Indus and the Ganga river systems.
18.   The plains from Ambala to the Sunderban stretch over nearly 1800 km, but the fall in its slope is hardly 300 metres.
19.   In other words, there is a fall of just one metre for every 6 km. Therefore, the river develops large meanders (घूमते हुए बहना).




The Brahmaputra River System
1.       The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet east of Mansarowar Lake.
2.       It is slightly longer than the Indus, and most of its course lies outside India.
3.       It flows eastwards parallel to the Himalayas.
4.       On reaching the Namcha Barwa (7757 m), it takes a ‘U’ turn and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh.
5.       Here, it is called the Dihang or Siang and it is joined by the Dibang, the Lohit and many other tributaries to form the Brahmaputra in Assam.
6.       In Tibet the river carries a smaller volume of water and less silt (मिट्टी या रेत) as it is a cold and a dry area.
7.       In India the river carries a large volume of water due to high rainfall area and large amount of silt.
8.       The Brahmaputra has a many channel in its entire length in Assam and forms many riverine islands.
9.       World’s largest riverine island formed by the Brahmaputra - Majuli or Majoli in Assam
10.   Every year during the rainy season, the river overflows (बाढ़) its banks (किनारा), causing widespread destruction due to floods in Assam and Bangladesh.

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The Peninsular Rivers
1.       Most of the major rivers of the Peninsula such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri flow eastwards and drain into the Bay of Bengal.
2.       These rivers make deltas at their mouths.
3.       The Narmada and the Tapi are the only long rivers, which flow west and make estuaries (wide part of a river where it nears the sea).
4.       The drainage basins of the peninsular rivers are comparatively small in size.
The Narmada Basin
1.       The Narmada rises in the Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh.
2.       It flows towards the west in a rift valley formed due to faulting.
3.       The ‘Marble rocks’, near Jabalpur where the Narmada flows through a deep gorge.
4.       Dhuadhar falls where the river plunges (गिरना) over steep (सीधी ढाल) rocks, are some of the famous ones.
5.       All the tributaries of the Narmada are very short and most of these join the main stream at right angles.
6.       The Narmada basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.
The Tapi Basin
1.       The Tapi rises in the Satpura ranges, in the Betul district of Madhya Pradesh.
2.       It also flows in a rift valley parallel to the Narmada but it is much shorter in length.
3.       Its basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
4.       The coastal plains between Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea are very narrow.
5.       Hence, the coastal rivers are short.
6.       The main west flowing rivers are Sabarmati, Mahi, Bharathpuzha and Periyar.
The Godavari Basin
1.       The Godavari is the largest Peninsular River.
2.       It rises from the slopes of the Western Ghats in the Nasik district of Maharashtra.
3.       Its length is about 1500 km.
4.       It drains into the Bay of Bengal.
5.       Its drainage basin is also the largest among the peninsular rivers.
6.       The basin covers parts of Maharashtra (about 50 % of the basin area lies in Maharashtra), Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
7.       The Godavari is joined by a number of tributaries such as the Purna, the Wardha, the Pranhita, the Manjra, the Wainganga and the Penganga.
8.       The last three tributaries are very large Because of its length and the area it covers, it is also known as the ‘Dakshin Ganga’.
The Mahanadi Basin
1.       The Mahanadi rises in the highlands of Chhattisgarh.
2.       It flows through Orissa to reach the Bay of Bengal.
3.       The length of the river is about 860 km.
4.       Its drainage basin is shared by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Orissa.
The Krishna Basin
1.       It rises from a spring near Mahabaleshwar; the Krishna flows for about 1400 km and reaches the Bay of Bengal.
2.       The Tungabhadra, the Koyana, the Ghatprabha, the Musi and the Bhima are some of its tributaries.
3.       Its drainage basin is shared by Maharasthra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
The Kaveri Basin
1.       The Kaveri rises in the Brahmagri range of the Western Ghats and it reaches the Bay of Bengal in south of Cuddalore, in Tamil Nadu. Total length of the river is about 760 km.
2.       Its main tributaries are Amravati, Bhavani, Hemavati and Kabini.
3.       Its basin drains parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.


LAKES
1.       Lakes of large extent are called the seas, like the Caspian, the Dead and the Aral seas.
2.       India has many lakes & differs from each other in the size and other characteristics.
3.       Most lakes are permanent; some contain water only during the rainy season, like the lakes in the semi-arid regions.
4.       Some lakes are the result of the action of glaciers and ice sheets.
5.       While the others have been formed by wind, river action, and human activities
6.       Spits and bars form lagoons in the coastal areas, e.g. the Chilika Lake, the Pulicat Lake, and the Kolleru Lake.
7.       Seasonal Lakes in the inland region e.g., the Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan, which is a salt water lake.
8.       Its water is used for producing salt.
9.       Most of the fresh water lakes are in the Himalayan region & origin from glaciers.
10.   The Wular Lake in Jammu and Kashmir is the result of the tectonic activity.
11.   It is the largest freshwater lake in India.
12.   The Dal Lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak and Barapani are some other important fresh water lakes.
13.   Apart from natural lakes, the damming of the rivers for the generation of hydel power has also led to the formation of Lakes such as Guru Gobind Sagar (Bhakra Nangal Project).
14.   A lake helps to regulate the flow of a river during heavy rainfall, it prevents flooding and during the dry season, it maintains the flow of water
ROLE OF RIVERS IN THE ECONOMY
Using rivers for irrigation, navigation, hydro-power generation is of special importance to a country like India, where agriculture is the major source of livelihood (रोजगार) of the majority of its population.
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RIVER POLLUTION
1.       The growing domestic, municipal, industrial and agricultural demand for water from rivers naturally affects (प्रभावित करना) the quality of water.
2.       As a result, more and more water is being drained out (निकालना) of the rivers reducing their volume.
3.       On the other hand, a heavy load of untreated sewage and industrial wastewater are emptied into the rivers.
4.       This affects not only the quality of water but also the self-cleansing capacity of the river.
5.       E.g., given the adequate stream flow, the Ganga water is able to reduce and absorb pollution loads within 20 km of large cities.
6.       But the due to increasing urbanisation and industrialisation the pollution level of many rivers has been rising.
7.       Concern (चिंता) over rising pollution in our rivers led to the launching of various action plans to clean the rivers.

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