Drainage with notes in hindi || Class 9 Chapter 3 Geography ||

Class – 9, Chapter 3
1.       The term drainage (पानी का निकास) describes the river system of an area.
2.       Small streams flowing from different directions come together to form the main river & drains into a large water body such as a lake or a sea or an ocean.
3.       The area drained by a single river system is called a drainage basin.
4.       Whereas elevated area, such as a mountain or upland, separates two drainage basins.
5.       Such an upland is known as a water divide.

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1.       The Indian rivers are divided into two major groups:  (1) The Himalayan Rivers (2) The Peninsular Rivers
2.       Most of the Himalayan Rivers are perennial (बारहमासी) which means that they have water throughout the year.
3.       These rivers receive water from rain as well as from melted snow from the lofty (ऊंचा) mountains.
4.       The two major Himalayan rivers, the Indus and the Brahmaputra originate (निकलना) from the north of the mountain ranges.
5.       They have cut through the mountains making gorges.
6.       The Himalayan Rivers have long courses (रास्ता) from their source to the sea.
7.       They perform intensive erosional activity in their upper courses and carry huge loads of silt and sand.
8.       In the middle and the lower courses (रास्ता), these rivers form meanders (घूमते हुए बहना), oxbow lakes, and many other depositional features in their floodplains.
9.       They also have well-developed deltas
10.   A large number of the Peninsular Rivers are seasonal, as their flow is dependent on rainfall.
11.   During the dry season, even the large rivers have reduced (घटना) flow of water in their channels.
12.   The Peninsular Rivers have shorter and shallower (कम गहरा) courses.

The Himalayan Rivers
1.       The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
2.       These rivers are long, and are joined by many large and important tributaries.
3.       A river along with its tributaries may be called a river system.
The Indus River System
1.       The river Indus rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarowar.
2.       Flowing west, it enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir.
3.       Several tributaries, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok and the Hunza, join it in the Kashmir region.
4.       The Indus flows through Baltistan and Gilgit and emerges (निकलना) from the mountains at Attock.
5.       The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum join together to enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan
6.       Beyond (के परे) this, the Indus flows southwards reaching the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi & Total length is 2900 km
7.       1/3rd of the Indus basin is located in India in the states of J&K, Himachal Pradesh and the Punjab and the rest is in Pakistan.

The Ganga River System
1.       The Ganga originates (निकलना) as Bhagirathi from the Gangotri glacier in Uttar Kashi District of Uttarakhand & joined by Alaknanda River at Devaprayag.
2.       From Devaprayag the river is called as Ganga.
3.       At Haridwar the Ganga emerges (निकलना) from the mountains on to the plains.
4.       The Ganga is joined by many tributaries from the Himalayas such as the Yamuna, the Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi.
5.       The river Yamuna rises from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas.
6.       It flows parallel to the Ganga and meets the Ganga at Allahabad.
7.       The Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi rise in the Nepal Himalaya.
8.       These rivers bring flood in the northern plains every year & damage (नष्ट करना) to life and property & also bring fertile (उपजाऊ) soil for good in agricultural lands.
9.       The main tributaries, which come from the peninsular uplands, are the Chambal, the Betwa and the Son.
10.   These rise from semi arid (शुष्क) areas, have shorter courses (रास्ता) and do not carry much water in them.
11.   Enlarged with the waters from its right and left bank tributaries, the Ganga flows eastwards till Farakka in West Bengal.
12.   This is the northernmost point of the Ganga delta.
13.   At Farraka, it bifurcates (दो शाखाओं में बांटना) into Bhagirathi-Hugli in West Bengal and Padma - Meghna in Bangladesh (joined by the Brahmaputra).
14.   This mighty river, with waters from the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra, flows into the Bay of Bengal.
15.   The delta formed by these rivers is known as the Sunderban delta.
16.   The length of the Ganga is over 2500 km.
17.   Ambala is located on the water divide between the Indus and the Ganga river systems.
18.   The plains from Ambala to the Sunderban stretch over nearly 1800 km, but the fall in its slope is hardly 300 metres.
19.   In other words, there is a fall of just one metre for every 6 km. Therefore, the river develops large meanders (घूमते हुए बहना).

The Brahmaputra River System
1.       The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet east of ..
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