Federalism with notes (हिंदी में) || Class 10 Chapter 2 Political Science ||



Class – 10, Chapter – 2
Federalism
What is federalism?
1.      It is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central authority and various (अनेक) constituent units of the country.
2.      It has two levels of government.
3.      One is the government for the entire country having a few subjects of common national interest.
4.      Other is the governments at the provinces or states level that look after (ध्यान रखना) much of the day-to-day administering of their state
5.      Both these levels of governments enjoy separate power.

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Key features of federalism
1.      There are two or more levels of government.
2.      Different level of government governs (शासन करना) the same citizens, but each tier has its own JURISDICTION (अधिकार-क्षेत्र) in specific matters of legislation (क़ानून), taxation and administration.
3.      The jurisdictions of the government are mentioned in the constitution.
4.      The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be changed by one level of government. Such changes require the approval of both the levels of government.
Two routes of federation
Coming together federations
1.      It involves independent States coming together on their own to form a bigger unit. E.g. USA, Switzerland and Australia
2.      In it, centre & states have equal power.
Holding together federations
1.      It involves a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent States and the national government. E.g. India, Spain and Belgium
2.      In it, Centre has more power.

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What makes India a federal country?
1.      The Constitution declared India as a “Union of States”.
2.      Here, they did not use the word federation
3.      The Constitution originally provided for a two-tier system of government i.e. Central Government & State governments
4.      Later, a third tier of federalism was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities.
Distribution of legislative powers
Union List
1.      It includes subjects of national importance like defence (सुरक्षा) of the country, foreign affairs, atomic energy, census (जनगणना), banking, insurance, communications and currency.
2.      The Union Government alone can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the Union List.
3.      This list has at present 100 subjects.

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State List
1.      It includes subjects of State and local importance such as police, trade, commerce, agriculture, sanitation (सफ़ाई व्यवस्था), local government, theaters, and irrigation so on.
2.      The state Government alone can make laws relating to these subjects.
3.      This has at present 61 subjects
Concurrent list
1.      Both, central and state government can make laws relating to these subjects
2.      This list has at present 52 subjects.
3.      It includes subjects like criminal law and procedure, marriage and divorce, population control and family planning, electricity, labour welfare (कल्याण), drugs, newspaper, books and printing press
Residuary subjects
1.      The subjects or matters which are not mentioned in any three lists, come under this category.
2.      The power to make laws on residuary subjects is given to centre government.
3.      It includes subjects like Computer software, e-commerce etc

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Important to Note
1.      First, if there is any dispute (झगड़ा) to make law of the concurrent list then centre government has the supreme power to make law.
2.      Second, it is not easy to make changes to this power sharing arrangement (above 3 lists).
3.      The Parliament cannot change this arrangement its own.
4.      Any change to it has to be first passed by both the Houses of Parliament with at least two-thirds majority.
5.      Then it has to be ratified (मंजूर करना) at least half of the total States.
6.      Third, In case of any dispute about the division of powers, the High Courts and the Supreme Court make a decision.

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How is federalism practised?
Linguistic States
1.      If you look at the political map of India, there have been changed in Areas, boundaries and names of the States from 1947 to till present
2.      Some states are created on the basis of languages like Gujarat, Punjab, and Haryana etc
3.      Some are divided on the base of culture, ethnicity (जाति) or geography like Nagaland, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand.
Language policy
1.      Our Constitution did not give the status of national language to any one language.
2.      Hindi (40% spoken) was identified as the official language.
3.      There are 22 languages recognised as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution.
4.      According to the Constitution, the use of English for official purposes was to stop in 1965.
5.      Many non- Hindi speaking States (in south) demanded that the use of English continue.
6.      The Central Government agreed to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes.

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Centre-State relations
1.      For a long time, the same party ruled both at the Centre and in most of the States.
2.      Therefore, no more development is seen at different areas.
3.      If there is any ruling party at the State level was different, the Central Government misused the power of Constitution to dismiss the State governments
4.      It changed after 1990 when rise of regional (क्षेत्रीय) political parties in many States emerged.
5.      It was also the beginning of COALITION (गठबंधन) GOVERNMENTS at the Centre.
6.    Since no single party got a clear majority in the Lok Sabha & national parties had to enter into an alliance (गठबंधन or समझौता) with many regional parties to form a government at the Centre.

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Linguistic diversity of India
1.      According to the census 2011, more than 1300 different languages mentioned as their mother tongues (मातृ भाषा).
2.      These languages were grouped together under some major languages.
3.      E.g. languages like Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Bundelkhandi, Chhattisgarhi, Rajasthani and many others were grouped together under ‘Hindi’.
4.      After this grouping, the Census (जनगणना) found 121 major languages.
5.      Of these 22 languages are now included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution and called ‘Scheduled Languages’.
6.      Others are called ‘non-Scheduled Languages’.
              

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Decentralisation in India
1.      When power is taken away from Central and State governments and given to local government, it is called decentralisation.
2.      The 3rd tier has been added in 73rd & 74th constitutional amendment act of 1992
3.      At the local level, People have better knowledge of problems in their areas & where to spend money for proper development.
4.      Panchayats in villages and municipalities in urban areas were set up in all the States.
Important point to note
1.      The Constitution was amended (संशोधन करना) to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective.
2.      It is mandated (आदेश देना) constitutionally to hold regular elections to local government bodies
3.      Seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.
4.      At least one-third seats are reserved for women.
5.      State Election Commission has been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections
Panchayati raj
1.      Rural local government is called Panchayati raj.
2.      Each village, or a group of villages in some States, has a gram panchayat.
3.      This is a council consisting of several ward members, often called panch, and a president or sarpanch.
4.      They are directly elected by all the adult population living in that ward or village


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