From Hunting–Gathering To Growing Food with notes (हिंदी में) | Class 6 Chapter 2 History |

Class – 6 Chapter – 2
The earliest people: why were they on the move?
1.       Earliest humans were food gatherers, hunters (शिकारी) & nomads (बंजारे or अस्थिरवासी).
2.       Generally, they hunted wild (जंगली) animals, caught fish and birds, gathered fruits, roots, nuts (अखरोट), seeds, leaves and eggs.
3.       They moved in group from place to place because it is safer rather to go alone.
4.       A group generally consists (बना होना) of a few men, women & children who stayed (रहना) with the elders.
5.       There are many reasons for this.
6.       First, if they had stayed at one place for a long time, they would have eaten up all the available plant and animal resources.
7.       Therefore, they would have had to go elsewhere (और कहीं) in search of food.
8.       Second, animals move from place to place in search of prey (शिकार), grass and leaves. So that hunters had to follow their movements.
9.       Third, plants and trees bear fruit in different seasons. So that people may have moved from season to season in search of different kinds of plants.
10.   Fourth, people, plants and animals need water to survive (जीवित रहना).
11.   Water is found in lakes, streams and rivers so they live around it.
How do we know about these people?
1.       We come to know a lot about the earliest human beings from their evidence (सबूत) in the form of stone tools, weapons (हथियार).
2.       Human beings defended (बचाना) themselves from wild animals using stone attaching them to handles of bones or wood & by making weapons in the form of spears (भाला) or arrows (तीर).
3.       The stones were used to hunt animals
4.       They were used to remove (हटाना) the skin of animals, cut meat & bones.
5.       Other tools were used to cut wood, which was used as firewood (जलाने की लकड़ी), huts and tools.

Finding out about fire
1.       Traces (अवशेष) of ash (राख) have been found Kurnool caves
2.       It suggests that people were familiar with the use of fire.
3.       They saw natural fires such as forest fires but they did not know how to light a fire on their own.
4.       Perhaps (शायद), two stone were rubbed together producing sparks (चिंगारी) & the sparks fell on some dry leaves
5.       Fire was used in many things like as a source of light, to roast meat (भुना हुआ मांस), and to scare away (भगाना) animals.


Names and dates
1.      Archaeologists call the earliest period the Palaeolithic.
2.      It derived from two Greek words, ‘palaeo’, meaning old, and ‘lithos’, meaning stone.
3.      The Palaeolithic period extends from 2 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago.
4.      This period is divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic.
5.      The period when we find environmental changes, beginning about 12,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago is called the Mesolithic (middle stone).
6.      Stone tools found during this period are generally tiny, and are called microliths.
7.      The next stage, from about 10,000 years ago, is known as the Neolithic.

A changing environment
1.      Around 12,000 years ago, there were major changes in the climate.
2.      It became warm from cold.
3.      In many areas, this led to the development of grasslands.
4.      Due to this, increase in the number of deer, goat, sheep and cattle, i.e. animals that survived on grass.
5.      Hunters of these animals also followed them.
6.      They learnt about their food habits and their breeding (प्रजनन) seasons.
7.      Slowly, people started thinking about rearing (पालना) these animals themselves.
8.      Fishing also became important.
Beginning of farming
1.      Agriculture was the greatest discovery of the Neolithic age.
2.      During this period early humans learnt the technique of sowing seeds (बीजों की बुआई), growing plants & finally harvesting (फसल कटाई) them.
3.      The first cereals (अनाज) to be cultivated were wheat & barley (जौ).
4.      In the beginning it grew naturally in different parts of the subcontinent.
5.      Men, women and children probably collected these grains as food, and learnt where they grew, and when they ripened (पकना).
6.      This may have led them to think about growing plants on their own.
7.      In this way people became farmers.
Domestication of Animals
1.      Humans of the Neolithic period started to domesticate (पालतू बनाना) animals.
2.      The dog was probably the first animal to be tamed (पालना).
3.      Later, other animals like goats & sheep were also domesticated.
4.      As a result, there was a continuous supply of milk & related products and also of meat.
5.      Fishing and hunting also began.
6.      Some animals were used in agriculture and transportation.
A new way of life
1.      As you know that plants takes some time to grow.
2.      This may be for several days, weeks, months and in some cases years.
3.      When people began growing plants, it meant that they had to stay (रहना) in the same place for a long time looking after the plants, watering, weeding (जंगली घास), driving away (भगाना) animals and birds — till the grain ripened (पकना).
4.      And then, the grain had to be used carefully.
5.      Then grain had to be stored in many areas like large clay pots, or wove baskets, or dug pits (गड्ढा) into the ground.
Finding out about the first farmers and herders
1.      Some of the most important sites are in the north-west, in present-day Kashmir, and in east and south India.
2.      Scientists study evidence (सबूत) of plants and animal bones to find the settlements.
3.      One of the most exciting finds includes remains of burnt (जला हुआ) grain (अनाज).
Towards a settled life
1.      Archaeologists have found traces (अवशेष) of huts or houses at some sites in Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir).
2.      Early humans built pit-houses, which were dug into the ground, with stairs (सीढ़ी) inside them.
3.      These may be for protection from cold weather.
Neolithic Tools
1.      Mortars and pestles were two very important neolithic tools.
2.      They were used for grinding (पीसना) grains.
3.      It is well polished with a fine cutting edge.
4.      This tools have been found in Burzahom (Kashmir) and Maski, Brahmagiri, Nasirpur and Hallur (Karnataka)
1.      Many kinds of earthen pots were used by the Neolithic people.
2.      They were plain, different in colour and had decorations on them.
3.      It was used for cooking food.
A closer look — Living and dying in Mehrgarh
1.      Mehrgarh is located in a fertile (उपजाऊ) plain, near the Bolan Pass in Baluchistan, Pakistan.
2.      It provided evidences of the earliest agricultural & pastoral (चारागाही) communities in South Asia.
3.      Bones of wild animals such as the deer and pig, and also bones of sheep and goat were found here.
4.      Other finds at Mehrgarh include remains of square or rectangular houses.
5.      Each house consists of four or more compartments (कमरा).
6.      Several burial (दफन करना) sites have been also found at Mehrgarh.
7.      In one site, the dead person was buried with goats.


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