From Trade to Territory with notes || Class 8 Chapter 2 History ||

Chapter - 2 Class - 8
From Trade to Territory
1.      Charter (अधिकारपत्र) – Grant of rights and privileges to a company or group of people, always in written form
2.      Custom duty – tax charged on the import of foreign goods
3.      Export – To sell goods to foreign countries
4.      Import – To buy goods from foreign countries
5.      Monopoly (एकाधिकार) – Complete control of trade
6.      Mufti – Jurist (न्यायज्ञ) of Muslim community responsible for explaining the law that the Qazi (Judge) would administer
7.      Sepoy (सिपाही) – An Indian soldier serving in the British army

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1.      Aurangzeb was the last of the powerful Mughal rulers.
2.      After his death in 1707, many Mughal governors (subadars) and big zamindars began asserting (अधिकार जताना) their authority.
3.      They established many regional kingdoms in different parts of India.
4.      The power of Delhi declined continuously.
5.       In 1857, Bahadur Shah Zafar was emperor (सम्राट) when revolt (विद्रोह) was started.
6.      He was arrested by the Captain Hodson
7.      By the second half of the 18th century, a new power emerged on the political horizon i.e. the British.
8.      Did you know that the British originally came as a small trading company and were against to acquire territories?

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English India Company Comes East
1.       On 31 Dec 1600, Queen Elizabeth I issued charter granting East India Company the monopoly to trade in the East for 15 years.
2.       This meant that no other trading group in England could compete (मुक़ाबला करना) with the East India Company.
3.       It was a private company run by board of directors.
4.       Portuguese (Vasco da Gama) were the first to arrive in India in May 1498 (through the Cape of Good Hope, and crossed the Indian Ocean) at Calicut and welcomed by the Hindu ruler of Calicut, the Zamorin.
5.       By the early 17th century, the Dutch and the French traders also arrived.
6.       Mughal emperor Jahangir granted the permission to set up factories in his territories.
7.       The East India Company established factories at two places – Surat (Gujarat) on the west coast and Hugli (west Bengal) in the east.
8.       The main purpose of them to trade like fine qualities of cotton, silk, pepper (काली मिर्च), indigo (नील), cloves (लौंग), cardamom (इलायची) and cinnamon (दालचीनी) were in great demand.

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French East India Company
1.       FEIC set up settlements at chandannagar (Bengal), Mahe (Kerala), Karaikal and Puducherry and Mauritius in the Indian Ocean in 1664.
2.       It was government-controlled company
3.       Major role in the expansion in India played by Dupleix (Governor general at Puducherry)
East India Company begins trade in Bengal
1.       The first English factory was set up on the banks of the river Hugli in 1651.
2.       The Company’s traders called factors.
3.       In 1698, they bribed (रिशवत देना) Mughal officials to give zamindari rights over three villages i.e. Kalikata (Calcutta or Kolkata), Gobindapur & Sutanuti.
4.       They also convinced the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb to issue a Farman granting the Company the right to trade duty free in return for an annual payment.
5.       After Aurangzeb’s death, the Mughal Empire became weak and the company intensified (तीव्र करना) its operations in Bengal.
6.       In 1717, they got the right to import and export goods without paying the custom duty from Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar.
7.       Company’s employees misused the rights and carried on illegal private trade for which did not pay trade duties.
8.       This resulted in enormous (बहुत बड़ा) loss of revenue (कर) for Bengal.
How trade led to battles
1.       Through the early 18th century, the conflict (झगड़ा) between the Company and the nawabs of Bengal increased.
2.       After Murshid Quli Khan, Ali vardi Khan and then Sirajuddaulah became ruler of Bengal & were stronger ruler.
3.       Nawabs laid down (निर्धारित करना) certain conditions which the company had to obey or lose its rights
4.       These conditions are –
·         The company shall not extend fortification (किलाबंदी) of its settlement.
·         The Nawabs forbid (मना करना) the company from minting coins (रुपया बनाने का कारखाना)
·         The company shall pay a larger amount of tribute (भेंट) for the trade concessions.
·         The officials of the company who were engaged in private trade shall pay custom duty.
5.       They refused to pay taxes, writing disrespectful (असभ्य) letters, and trying to humiliate (नीचा दिखाना) the Nawab and his officials.
6.       The Company on its part declared that the unjust (अनुचित) demands of the local officials were ruining (बर्बाद करना) the trade of the Company.
7.       They said that trade could flourish (फलना फूलना) only if the duties were removed.
8.       It was also convinced that to expand trade it had to spread (फैलाना) its settlements, buy up villages, and rebuild its forts.
9.       Soon, Sirajuddaulah captured (बंदी बनाना) English factory at kasimbazar and company’s fort at Calcutta.
10.   The conflicts led to confrontations (आमना-सामना) and finally converted in the famous Battle of Plassey
The Battle of Plassey
1.       When Alivardi Khan died in 1756, Sirajuddaulah became the nawab of Bengal.
2.       The Company was worried about his power and wanted a puppet (कठपुतली) ruler who would grant them more privileges (विशेष अधिकार).
3.       Sirajuddaulah asked the Company to stop interfering in the political affairs of his dominion (रियासत), stop fortification, and pay the revenues.
4.       After negotiations (समझौता) failed, the Nawab marched with 30,000 soldiers to the English factory at Kassimbazar, captured the Company officials, locked the warehouse (गोदाम), disarmed (हथियार छीन लेना) all Englishmen, and blockaded (घेराबंदी) English ships.
5.       Then he marched to Calcutta to establish their control over the Company’s fort.
6.       On 23 June 1757, Robert Clive led the Company’s army against Sirajuddaulah at Plassey.
7.       One of the main reasons for the defeat (हार) of the Nawab was that the forces led by Mir Jafar (commander of Sirajuddaulah’s) never fought the battle (युद्ध).
8.       Clive promised him to make nawab after the death of Sirajuddaulah.
9.       The Battle of Plassey became famous because it was the first major victory the Company won in India.
10.   After the defeat at Plassey, Sirajuddaulah was assassinated (हत्या करना) and Mir Jafar made the nawab.

Bengal after Plassey
1.       Mir Jafar became a puppet (कठपुतली) in the hands of the British.
2.       Britishers continuously demanded money and privileges.
3.       Mir Jafar failed to meet the company’s heavy monetary demands & he was overthrown (तख्ता पलट देना).
4.       In 1760, the company made his son-in-law, Mir Qasim, the nawab of Bengal
5.       After some years, he attempted (प्रयत् करना) to free himself from the British domination.
6.       He dismissed court officials who favored the British & abolished all duties on internal trade so that both Indian & British merchants could trade on equal terms.
7.       Mir Qasim also placed limits on the trade privileges of the company.

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Battle of Buxar (1764)
1.       Due to all this, company was in anger (गुस्सा) & declared a war.
2.       Mir Qasim was defeated (हरा देना) in a battle & Mir Jafar was reinstalled as the Nawab of Bengal.
3.       The Nawab had to pay Rs 500,000 every month but the Company wanted more money to finance its wars, and meet the demands of trade and its other expenses.
4.       It wanted more territories and more revenue.
5.       Mir Qasim fled (भाग जाना) to Awadh and entered into an alliance (संधि) with the Nawab of Awadh, Shuja-ud-daulah & Mughal emperor, Shah Alam II.
6.       Their combined forces fought with the British army at Buxar on 22 October 1764, but they were defeated.
7.       With this victory, the company became the real master of Bengal.

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Major Consequences of the Battle of Buxar
1.       In 1765, the Treaty of Allahabad was signed between Shuja-ud-daulah, Shah Alam II and Clive
2.       The English EIC got Diwani of Bengal from the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II
3.       Now they could collect revenue from Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
4.       In return, the emperor would receive an annual tribute of 26 lakh rupees and 2 districts in UP and would be under the protection of British.
5.       The Nawab of Awadh was made to pay an indemnity (हानि से सुरक्षा) of 50 lakh rupees.
6.       The company restored his kingdom & promised to help in case of attack on his territory.
7.       Robert Clive introduced dual government in Bengal (till 1772).
8.       Under this system, the Nawab had all responsibilities but no power or resources to run the administration & company had all power but no responsibilities.
9.       In 1772, Warren Hasting (1772-1785) became the new governor general of Bengal.
10.   He ended the dual system of government & Bengal came under direct control of the English EIC.

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Company officials become “nabobs”
1.       After the Battle of Plassey, the actual nawabs of Bengal were forced to give land and vast sums of money as personal gifts to Company officials.
2.       Robert Clive had come to Madras (now Chennai) from England in 1743 at the age of 18.
3.       When in 1767 he left India, he had £401,102.
4.       He was appointed Governor of Bengal in 1764 & asked to remove corruption in Company administration but he was himself involved in it & had to give answer in the British Parliament.
5.       Later he committed suicide in 1774.
6.       Some Britishers managed to return with wealth (दौलत) & became riches.
7.       They were called “nabobs” – an anglicised version of the Indian word nawab.
Company Rule Expands
1.       In a few cases, direct military attack done by Company on an unknown territory.
2.       Mostly he used a variety of political, economic and diplomatic (कूट-नीतिक) methods to extend its influence (प्रभाव) before annexing (हड़प लेना) an Indian kingdom.
3.       After the Battle of Buxar (1764), the Company appointed Residents in Indian states.
4.       They were political or commercial agents and their job was to serve in the interests of the Company.
5.       Through the Residents, the Company officials began interfering in the internal affairs of Indian states.
6.       They tried to decide who was to be the successor (उत्तराधिकारी) to the throne (राज-गद्दी), and who was to be appointed in administrative posts.
7.       Sometimes the Company forced the states into a “subsidiary alliance”.
8.       According to this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces.
9.       They were to be protected by the Company, but had to pay for it.
10.   If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty (जुर्माना).
11.   E.g. Awadh & Hyderabad territory included into the Company as he failed to pay for the “subsidiary forces”.
Tipu Sultan – The “Tiger of Mysore”
1.       Mysore emerged as a powerful state under the leadership of Haidar Ali (1761 to 1782) and his son Tipu Sultan (1782 to 1799).
2.       Mysore controlled the profitable trade of the Malabar coast.
3.       In 1785 Tipu Sultan stopped the export of sandalwood (चंदन की लकड़ी), pepper (काली मिर्च) and cardamom (इलायची) through the ports of his kingdom, and disallowed local merchants from trading with the Company.
4.       He established a close relationship with the French in India, and modernised his army with their help.
5.       The British were very angry.
6.       They saw Haidar and Tipu as arrogant (घमंडी) and dangerous rulers who had to be controlled and crushed (अधीन करना).
7.       Four wars were fought with Mysore (1767-69, 1780-84, 1790-92 and 1799).
8.       In the third Anglo-Mysore war, British led by Lord Cornwallis & supported by the Nizam and Marathas, defeated Tipu.
9.       He had to pay huge fine, a part of his kingdom while two of his sons were taken hostage (बन्धक) by the British.
10.   He should be accepted the subsidiary alliance but he rejected his proposal which led to the fourth Anglo-Mysore War.
11.   Tipu Sultan was killed in 1799 defending his capital Seringapatam and a subsidiary alliance was imposed (थोपना) on the state.

War with the Marathas
1.       After the defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, the Marathas became weak.
2.       They were divided into many states under different chiefs (sardars) belonging to dynasties such as Sindhia, Holkar, Gaikwad and Bhonsle.
3.       These chiefs were members under a Peshwa (Principal Minister).
4.       After the 1770s, the power struggle among the Maratha chiefs increased.
5.       British took advantage of their disunity & interfered in their internal affairs.
6.       This led to the three Anglo-Maratha War between 1775 and 1818.
First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-1782)
1.       This war broke out on the issue of succession (उत्तराधिकार) to the throne (राज-गद्दी) of the peshwa.
2.       The clash involved Madhav Rao II, supported by the Maratha chiefs under the leadership of Nana Phadnis on the one side, and Raghunath Rao supported by the British on the other side.
3.       The united Maratha chiefs defeated the British forces.
4.       British forces captured (कबज़ा करना) Ahmedabad & Gwalior.
5.       In 1782, peace (शांति) was concluded by the Treaty of Salbai.
6.       The British recognized Madhav Rao II as the Peshwa.
Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805)
1.       British under Lord Wellesley tried to impose a subsidiary alliance on the sindhias & Bhonsles.
2.       They resisted (रोकना) & declared a war on the British.
3.       Marathas were defeated & had to accept the subsidiary alliance & territory of the Ahmednagar & Broach.
Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1819)
1.      Peshwa Baji Rao II tried to unite the Maratha chiefs against the British.
2.      Maratha forces lost.
3.      The office of the Peshwa was abolished (समाप्त करना).
4.      All his kingdoms & territories were annexed (हड़प लेना) by the British & not allowed to maintain an army.
Claiming Paramountcy (सर्वोच्चता)
1.       Lord Hastings (from 1813 to 1823) became the Governor General & started a new policy of paramountcy.
2.       Now the Company claimed that its authority was paramount or supreme, means its power was greater than that of Indian states.
3.       This policy expressed the expansionist (विस्तारवादी) intention of the British.
4.       However, the revolt (बगावत) of Rani Chennamma of kittur, who took to arms (हथियार) when the British tried to annex her state, showed the non-acceptance of the policy.

Afghanistan and Sind
1.      In 1830s, the British started interfering in Afghanistan’s internal affairs as they thought Russia might attack in India through Afghanistan.
2.      This insecurity resulted into Anglo-Afghan wars between 1838 and 1842.
3.      The British failed to established direct control over Afghanistan but they annexed Sind in 1843.
1.      Punjab flourished (समृद्ध होना) under Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
2.      He kept Punjab free from the British through diplomacy (कूटनीति) & by maintaining a strong army.
3.      In 1839, Maharaja Ranjit Singh died.
4.      After his death, British began to interfere in the affairs of Punjab.
5.      This led to two Anglo-Sikh wars (1845-49) & the Sikhs were defeated.
6.      The British under Lord Dalhousie annexed Punjab in 1849.
Doctrine of Lapse
1.      Like the policy of Subsidiary alliance, Doctrine of Lapse was introduced by Lord Dalhousie to annex the Indian states.
2.      According to it, a dependent state would pass into British hands, if the ruler died without a natural male heir (वारिस).
3.      It did not recognize the right of adopted children to inherit (अधिकार पाना) the throne (राज-गद्दी).
4.      Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853), & Jhansi (1854) were all annexed under this policy.
Annexation of Awadh
1.      In 1856, Awadh was annexed by Lord Dalhousie due to misgovernance.
2.      The ruler of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, was deposed (हटा देना) & this enraged (क्रोधित करना) the people of Awadh.
3.      They joined the great revolt of 1857.
Administrative Structure
1.       British territories were divided into administrative units called Presidencies.
2.       There were three Presidencies: Bengal (Kolkata), Madras (Chennai) and Bombay (Mumbai).
3.       Each was ruled by a Governor (Supreme head).
4.      Warren Hastings became the first Governor-General & introduced several administrative reforms (सुधार) about justice.
5.      Each district was to have two courts – a criminal court (faujdari Adalat) and a civil court (diwani Adalat).
The Company army
1.       The British required a large army to defend (बचाना) its trade, territories & put down internal rebellion (विद्रोह).
2.       The British army included European soldiers and Indian sepoys (Hindi word sipahi, meaning soldiers)
3.       The British recruited (भरती करना) peasants as sepoys (सिपाही) and gave them European training.
4.       They were trained to use muskets (बन्दूक) (A heavy gun used by infantry soldiers) and matchlocks (तोड़ेदार बन्दूक) (early type of gun in which the powder was ignited [जलना] by a match).
1.       East India Company was transformed from a trading company to a territorial colonial power.
2.       The arrival of new steam technology in the early 19th century also helped in this process.
3.       By 1857 the Company came to exercise direct rule over about 63 % of the territory and 78 % of the population of the Indian subcontinent.
4.       Indirect control on the remaining territory and population of the country.

5.       Thus, East India Company had virtually (वास्तव में) the whole of India under its control.


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