From Trade to Territory with notes || Class 8 Chapter 2 History ||


Chapter - 2 Class - 8
From Trade to Territory
1.      Charter (अधिकारपत्र) – Grant of rights and privileges to a company or group of people, always in written form
2.      Custom duty – tax charged on the import of foreign goods
3.      Export – To sell goods to foreign countries
4.      Import – To buy goods from foreign countries
5.      Monopoly (एकाधिकार) – Complete control of trade
6.      Mufti – Jurist (न्यायज्ञ) of Muslim community responsible for explaining the law that the Qazi (Judge) would administer
7.      Sepoy (सिपाही) – An Indian soldier serving in the British army

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Introduction
1.      Aurangzeb was the last of the powerful Mughal rulers.
2.      After his death in 1707, many Mughal governors (subadars) and big zamindars began asserting (अधिकार जताना) their authority.
3.      They established many regional kingdoms in different parts of India.
4.      The power of Delhi declined continuously.
5.       In 1857, Bahadur Shah Zafar was emperor (सम्राट) when revolt (विद्रोह) was started.
6.      He was arrested by the Captain Hodson
7.      By the second half of the 18th century, a new power emerged on the political horizon i.e. the British.
8.      Did you know that the British originally came as a small trading company and were against to acquire territories?
                      

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English India Company Comes East
1.       On 31 Dec 1600, Queen Elizabeth I issued charter granting East India Company the monopoly to trade in the East for 15 years.
2.       This meant that no other trading group in England could compete (मुक़ाबला करना) with the East India Company.
3.       It was a private company run by board of directors.
4.       Portuguese (Vasco da Gama) were the first to arrive in India in May 1498 (through the Cape of Good Hope, and crossed the Indian Ocean) at Calicut and welcomed by the Hindu ruler of Calicut, the Zamorin.
5.       By the early 17th century, the Dutch and the French traders also arrived.
6.       Mughal emperor Jahangir granted the permission to set up factories in his territories.
7.       The East India Company established factories at two places – Surat (Gujarat) on the west coast and Hugli (west Bengal) in the east.
8.       The main purpose of them to trade like fine qualities of cotton, silk, pepper (काली मिर्च), indigo (नील), cloves (लौंग), cardamom (इलायची) and cinnamon (दालचीनी) were in great demand.
                            


                             
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French East India Company
1.       FEIC set up settlements at chandannagar (Bengal), Mahe (Kerala), Karaikal and Puducherry and Mauritius in the Indian Ocean in 1664.
2.       It was government-controlled company
3.       Major role in the expansion in India played by Dupleix (Governor general at Puducherry)
                                        
East India Company begins trade in Bengal
1.       The first English factory was set up on the ...

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