Nationalism in India with Notes || Class 10 Chapter 2 History ||




Class – 10, Chapter - 2
Nationalism in India
The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation
1.       After 1919, we see the national movement (आन्दोलन) spreading to new areas, including new social groups, and developing new modes of struggle.
2.       First of all, the world war created a new economic and political situation.
3.       It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure (खर्च) which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were increased and income tax introduced.
4.       During the war years prices increased very rapidly between 1913 and 1918 which created difficulties for the common people.
5.       Villages were called upon (बुलाना) to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment (नये सिपाहियों की भर्ती) in rural areas caused widespread anger (ग़ुस्सा).
6.       Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops (फसल) failed in many parts of India, resulting in shortages (कमी) of food.
7.       This time spread by an influenza (उड़ कर लगने वाला जुकाम) epidemic (महामारी).
8.       According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people dead due to famines (भुखमरी) and the epidemic (महामारी)
9.       People hoped that their difficulties would end after the war was over.
10.   But that did not happen.
11.   At this stage a new leader appeared and suggested a new mode of struggle.
The Idea of Satyagraha
1.       Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915.
2.       He had come from South Africa where he had successfully fought the racist (जातिवादी) regime (शासन) with a novel (अनोखा)method of mass (जनसमूदाय) agitation (आंदोलन), which he called Satyagraha.
3.       The idea of Satyagraha emphasised (जोर देना) the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
4.       It suggested that if the cause (कार्य) was true, if the struggle was against injustice (अन्याय), then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor (उत्पीड़क).
5.       Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.
6.       After arriving in India, Mahatma Gandhi successfully organised Satyagraha movements in various places.
7.       In 1917 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants (किसान) to struggle against the oppressive (अत्याचारी) plantation system.
8.       Then in 1917, he supported the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat by Satyagraha movements.
9.       Affected by crop failure and a plague (विपत्ति) epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed. 
10.   In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organise a Satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.



 The Rowlatt Act
1.       Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).
2.       This Act had been hurriedly (जल्दी से) passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite (के बावजूद) the united opposition (विरोध) of the Indian members.
3.       It gave the government enormous (बहुत अधिक) powers to repress (दबाना) political activities, and allowed detention (कैद) of political prisoners (क़ैदी) without doing anything for two years.
4.       Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience (अवज्ञा) against such unjust laws, which would start with a protest on 6 April.
5.       Rallies were organised in various ...

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