Nationalism in India with Notes || Class 10 Chapter 2 History ||




Class – 10, Chapter - 2
Nationalism in India
The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation
1.       After 1919, we see the national movement (आन्दोलन) spreading to new areas, including new social groups, and developing new modes of struggle.
2.       First of all, the world war created a new economic and political situation.
3.       It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure (खर्च) which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were increased and income tax introduced.
4.       During the war years prices increased very rapidly between 1913 and 1918 which created difficulties for the common people.
5.       Villages were called upon (बुलाना) to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment (नये सिपाहियों की भर्ती) in rural areas caused widespread anger (ग़ुस्सा).
6.       Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops (फसल) failed in many parts of India, resulting in shortages (कमी) of food.
7.       This time spread by an influenza (उड़ कर लगने वाला जुकाम) epidemic (महामारी).
8.       According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people dead due to famines (भुखमरी) and the epidemic (महामारी)
9.       People hoped that their difficulties would end after the war was over.
10.   But that did not happen.
11.   At this stage a new leader appeared and suggested a new mode of struggle.
The Idea of Satyagraha
1.       Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915.
2.       He had come from South Africa where he had successfully fought the racist (जातिवादी) regime (शासन) with a novel (अनोखा)method of mass (जनसमूदाय) agitation (आंदोलन), which he called Satyagraha.
3.       The idea of Satyagraha emphasised (जोर देना) the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
4.       It suggested that if the cause (कार्य) was true, if the struggle was against injustice (अन्याय), then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor (उत्पीड़क).
5.       Mahatma Gandhi believed that this dharma of non-violence could unite all Indians.
6.       After arriving in India, Mahatma Gandhi successfully organised Satyagraha movements in various places.
7.       In 1917 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants (किसान) to struggle against the oppressive (अत्याचारी) plantation system.
8.       Then in 1917, he supported the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat by Satyagraha movements.
9.       Affected by crop failure and a plague (विपत्ति) epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue, and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed. 
10.   In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organise a Satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

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 The Rowlatt Act
1.       Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act (1919).
2.       This Act had been hurriedly (जल्दी से) passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite (के बावजूद) the united opposition (विरोध) of the Indian members.
3.       It gave the government enormous (बहुत अधिक) powers to repress (दबाना) political activities, and allowed detention (कैद) of political prisoners (क़ैदी) without doing anything for two years.
4.       Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience (अवज्ञा) against such unjust laws, which would start with a protest on 6 April.
5.       Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops, and shops closed down.
6.       British administration decided to clamp down (कठोर नीति) on nationalists.
7.       Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar, and Mahatma Gandhi was denied from entering Delhi.
8.       On 10 April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful (शांतिपूर्ण) procession (जलूस)
9.       After that people attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations.
10.   Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.
11.   On 13 April the Jallianwala Bagh incident took place.
12.   On that day a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh.
13.   Some came to protest against the government’s new repressive (दमन करना) policy.
14.   Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. 
15.   Many villagers (outside the city) were unaware of the martial law that had been imposed.
16.   Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds.
17.   As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets in many north Indian towns.
18.   There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.
19.   The government responded (उत्तर देना) with brutal (निर्दय) repression (दबाव), satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl (घिसटना) on the streets, and do salaam (salute) to all sahibs; people were flogged (कोड़े मारना) and villages (Gujranwala in Punjab, now in Pakistan) were bombed.
20.   Seeing violence (हिंसा) spread, Mahatma Gandhi called off (रद्द करना) the movement (आंदोलन).
21.   While the Rowlatt Satyagraha was a huge movement, it was still limited (सीमित) mostly to cities and towns.
22.   Mahatma Gandhi now felt to launch a more broad-based movement in India but not possible to bringing the Hindus and Muslims close together.
23.   One way of doing this, he felt, was to take up the Khilafat issue.
24.   To defend (बचाना) the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
25.   Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
26.   At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for swaraj.
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Why Non-cooperation?
1.       In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909) Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation (सहयोग) of Indians, and had survived (जीवित रहना) only because of this cooperation.
2.       If Indians refused (इनकार करना) to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse (समाप्त हो जाना) within a year, and swaraj would come.
3.       It should begin with the surrender (छोड़ देना) of titles that the government awarded, and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools, and foreign goods.
4.       In summer of 1920 Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali toured in many parts to mobilising (संघटित करना) support for the movement (आंदोलन).
5.       Many within the Congress were, however, concerned (चिंतित होना) about the proposals.
6.       Finally, at the Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, a compromise (समझौता करना) was worked out and the Non-Cooperation programme was adopted.


Differing Strands within the Movement
1.       The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921.
2.       Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration (इच्छा)
The Movement in the Towns
1.       The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities.
2.       Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
3.       The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.
4.       Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed (घेरना), and foreign cloth burnt (जलाना).
5.       The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore.
6.       In many places merchants (दुकानदार) and traders refused to trade in foreign goods.
7.       Now people were wearing only Indian clothes, production of Indian textile mills and handlooms increased.
8.       But this movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons.
9.       Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
10.   Similarly, the boycott of British institutions created a problem.
11.   For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones.
12.   So students and teachers began trickling (धीरे-धीरे जाना) back to government schools and lawyers joined back work in government courts.
1.       From the cities, the Non-Cooperation (असहयोग) Movement spread to the countryside.
2.       In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra.
3.       The movement (आन्दोलन) here was against talukdars and landlords (जमींदार) who demanded from peasants very high rents (किराया) and a variety of other taxes.
4.       The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition (समाप्त करना) of begar (forced labour), and boycott of oppressive (अत्याचारी) landlords.
5.       By October, the Awadh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and a few others.
6.       Within a month, over 300 branches had been set up in the villages around the region.
7.       As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted, and grain hoards (ढेर or जमा करना) were taken over (क़ब्ज़ा कर लेना).
8.       In many places local leaders told peasants that Gandhiji had declared that no taxes were to be paid and land was to be redistributed among the poor.
9.       British government had closed large forest areas, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuel wood and fruits.
10.   This enraged (गुस्सा दिलाना) the hill people.
11.   Not only were their livelihoods (रोजगार) affected but they felt that their traditional (परंपरागत) rights were being denied.
12.   Alluri Sitaram Raju (their leader) talked of the greatness of Mahatma Gandhi, said he was inspired by the Non-Cooperation Movement, and persuaded (यक़ीन दिलाना) people to wear khadi and give up drinking.
13.   He said that India could be liberated (स्वतंत्र करना) only by the use of force, not non-violence.
14.   The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.
15.   Raju was captured and executed (फाँसी देना) in 1924, and over time became a hero.
Swaraj in the Plantations
1.       Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.
2.       When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers left the plantations and moved home.
3.       They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages.
4.       They, however, never reached their destination.
5.       Due to railway strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
Towards Civil Disobedience (अवज्ञा)
1.       In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
2.       He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed proper training.
3.       After this, agricultural prices began to fall from 1926 and collapsed after 1930.
4.       As the demand for agricultural goods fell and exports declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvests and pay their revenue.
5.       Due to this, the new Tory government in Britain constituted a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon to check constitutional system in India and suggest changes.
6.       The problem was that the commission did not have Indian member.
7.       They were all British.
8.       When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, he was welcomed with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’.
9.       All parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations (पर्दर्शन).
10.   To overcome this protest, viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929 a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution.
11.   This did not satisfy the Congress leaders.
12.   In December 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore Congress formalised the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence for India.
13.   It was declared that 26 January 1930, would be celebrated as the Independence Day when people were to take a pledge (संकल्प) to struggle for complete independence.

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