New kings and kingdoms with notes || Class 7 Chapter 2 History ||




Chapter 2, Class 7
New Kings and Kingdoms
The Emergence of new dynasties
1.      By the 7th century there were big landlords (जमींदार) or warrior (योद्धा) chiefs in different regions of the subcontinent.
2.      They worked under the kings as their subordinates (अधीन करना) or samantas.
3.      They brought gifts for their kings and also provide military support.
4.      After gaining more power and wealth (धन-दौलत), they declared themselves to be maha-samanta, maha-mandaleshvara.
5.      Sometimes they claimed (दावा करना) their independence from their kings.
6.      E.g. Rashtrakutas were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka.
7.      Dantidurga (Rashtrakuta chief) performed hiranya-garbha (golden womb) with the help of Brahmanas & said “rebirth” of the Kshatriya, even if he was not one by birth.
8.      Other example was, the Kadamba Mayurasharman and the Gurjara- Pratihara Harichandra were Brahmanas who gave up their traditional professions and took to arms, successfully establishing kingdoms in Karnataka and Rajasthan with the help of military skills.
                    
        

Administrations in the Kingdoms
1.      Many kings adopted high titles like maharaja-adhiraja (great king, overlord [अधिपति] of kings), tribhuvana-chakravartin (lord of the three worlds).
2.      Kings also shared power with their samantas as well as with associations of peasants (किसान), traders (व्यापारी) and Brahmanas.
3.      Tax was also collected in two types
4.      Vetti – It is in the form of forced labour not in cash form
5.      Kadamai – It is taken in the form of land revenue.
6.      Revenue was also collected from traders.
7.      These taxes were used to finance the king’s establishment, as well as for the construction of temples and forts (क़िला).
8.      It was also used in fight wars; in turn they acquired (प्राप्त करना) wealth in the form of plunder (लूट).
Prashastis and Land Grants
1.      Prashastis contain details about the rulers & wanted to depict (दर्शाना) themselves like valiant (शूरवीर), victorious (विजेता) warriors (योद्धा).
2.      These were composed (बनाना) by Brahmanas, who helped in the administration.
3.      Kings often rewarded (पुरस्कार) Brahmanas by grants (अनुदान or देना) of land.
4.      These were recorded on copper plates, which were given to those who received the land
Warfare for Wealth
1.      Many kings tried to control other areas.
2.      One such area was ...
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