Power sharing with notes || Class 10 Chapter 1 Politics ||




Chapter – 1, Class - 10
Power sharing
Belgium and Sri Lanka
1.       Belgium is a small country in Europe, smaller in area than the state of Haryana.
2.       Its borders touch with France, Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
3.       It has a population of a little over one crore, about half the population of Haryana.
4.       The ETHNIC (जातीय) composition (बनावट) of this small country is very complex.
5.       Of the country’s total population, 59 % lives in the Flemish region and speaks Dutch language.
6.       Another 40 % people live in the Wallonia region and speak French.
7.       Remaining 1 % of the Belgians speak German.
8.       In the capital city Brussels, 80 % people speak French while 20 % are Dutch speaking.
9.       The minority (अल्पसंख्यक) French-speaking community was rich and powerful.
10.   Dutch-speaking community was angry for this who got the benefit of economic development and education much later.
11.   This led to tensions between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s and 1960s.
12.   This tension was seen more in Brussels.
13.   Dutch-speaking people constituted a majority in the country, but were poor & weak.
14.   Let us compare this to the situation in another country.
15.   Sri Lanka is an island nation, just a few kilometers off the southern coast of Tamil Nadu.
16.   It has about 2 crore people, about the same as in Haryana.
17.   The major social groups are the Sinhala-speakers (74 %) and the Tamil-speakers (18 %).
18.   Among Tamils there are two subgroups.
19.   Tamil natives (मूल निवासी) of the country are called ‘Sri Lankan Tamils’ (13 %).
20.   The rest, whose forefathers (पूर्वज) came from India as plantation workers during colonial period, are called ‘Indian Tamils’.
21.   As shown in map, Sri Lankan Tamils are populated in the north and east of the country.
22.   Most of the Sinhala speaking people are Buddhists, while most of the Tamils are Hindus or Muslims.
23.   Just imagine what could happen in situations like this.
24.   In Belgium, the Dutch community could take advantage of its numeric majority (बहुसंख्यक) and force its will on the French and German-speaking population.
25.   This would increase conflict (झगड़ा) further.
26.   This could lead to partition (बँटवारा) of the country; both the sides would claim (दावा करना) control over Brussels.
27.   In Sri Lanka, the Sinhala community enjoyed an even bigger majority and could impose (थोपना) its will (इच्छा) on the entire country.




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Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka
1.       Sri Lanka got independence country in 1948.
2.       The leaders of the Sinhala community tried to secure dominance (प्रधानता) over government by power of their majority.
3.       As a result, the democratically elected government with the help of majority to establish Sinhala supremacy (प्रभुता)
4.       In 1956, an Act was passed to recognise (मान्यता देना) Sinhala as the only official language, thus ignoring Tamil.
5.       The governments also started policies to give preference to Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
6.       A new constitution insured (गारंटी देना) that the state shall protect and promote (बढ़ावा देना) Buddhism.
7.       All these government measures gradually (धीरे-धीरे) increased the differences among the Sri Lankan Tamils.
8.       They felt that none of the major political parties of Sinhala leaders was sensitive (संवेदनशील) to their language and culture.
9.       They felt that the constitution and government policies denied (इनकार करना) them equal political rights, discriminated (अंतर करना) against them in getting jobs and other opportunities.
10.   As a result, the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities strained (तनावपूर्ण) over time.
11.   The Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recognition (पहचान) of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in education and jobs.
12.   But their demand for more autonomy to provinces (प्रांत) populated by the Tamils was repeatedly denied (इनकार करना).
13.   By 1980s several political organisations were formed demanding an independent Tamil Eelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.
14.   The distrust (अविश्वास) between the two communities turned into widespread conflict (झगड़ा).
15.   It soon turned into a CIVIL WAR.
16.   As a result thousands of people of both the communities have been killed.
17.   Many families were forced to leave the country as refugees and many more lost their livelihoods (रोजगार).
18.   This civil war has increased the problems to the social, cultural and economic life of the country.
19.   It ended in 2009.

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Accommodation in Belgium
1.       The Belgian leaders took a different path.
2.       They accepted the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities.
3.       Between 1970 and 1993, they amended (सुधरना) their constitution 4 times so that everyone can work & live together within the same country.
4.       The arrangement they worked is different from any other country and is very innovative (उन्नतिशील).
5.       Here are some of the elements of the Belgian model:
·         Constitution orders that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government. Some special laws require the support from each linguistic (भाषा संबंधी) group. Thus, no single community can make decisions one-sided (एकतरफ़ा).
·         Many powers of the central government have been given to state governments of the two regions of the country. The state governments are not under (अधीन) to the Central Government.
·         Brussels has a separate (अलग ) government in which both the communities have equal representation.
·         Apart (छोड़कर) from the Central and the State Government, there is a third kind of government. This ‘community government’ is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German-speaking. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.
6.       You think the Belgian model very complicated (जटिल).
7.       It also very complicated even for people living in Belgium.
8.       But these arrangements are good enough to avoid civil war in the country & divided into 2 countries.
9.       When many countries of Europe came together to form the European Union, Brussels was chosen as its headquarters.
10.   What do we learn from these two stories of Belgium and Sri Lanka?
11.   Both are democracies.
12.   Yet, they thought with the question of power sharing differently.
13.   In Belgium, the leaders have realised that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions.
14.   Sri Lanka shows us a different example.
15.   It shows us that if a majority community wants to force its dominance (शासन) over others and refuses (इनकार करना) to share power, it can be dangerous to the unity of the country.



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Why power sharing is desirable?
1.       Thus, two different reasons can be given in favour of power sharing.
2.       Firstly, power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
3.       Since social conflict further increase violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.
4.       Imposing the will of majority community over others may look be good option in the short run, but in the long run it can be dangerous to the unity of the nation.
5.       Violence of the majority is not just trouble (परेशान करना) for the minority; it often brings ruin (विनाश का कारण) to the majority as well.
6.       There is a second; Power sharing is the very spirit (आत्मा) of democracy.
7.       A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise.
8.       A legitimate (वैध) government is one where citizens, through participation, acquire (हासिल करना) a interest in the system.
9.       Let us call the first set of reasons PRUDENTIAL (बुद्धिमानी की) and the second moral (नैतिक).
10.   While prudential reasons stress (ज़ोर देना) that power sharing will bring out better outcomes (परिणाम), moral reasons emphasis (जोर) the power sharing as valuable.

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Forms of power-sharing
1.       Political power cannot be divided so that the idea comes into the mind of power sharing.
2.       For a long time it was believed that all power of a government must be to one person or group of persons located at one place.
3.       It was felt that if the power to decide is dispersed (फैलाना), it would not be possible to take quick decisions and to implement (लागू करना) them.
4.       One basic principle of democracy is that people are the source of all political power.
5.       In a democracy, people rule themselves through institutions of self-government.
6.       In a good democratic government, due respect is given to different groups and their views.
7.       In modern democracies, power sharing arrangements can take many forms.
8.       Let us look at some of the most common arrangements that we have or will come across.
        i.            Power should be shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary (also called horizontal power sharing). It allows different organs of government placed at the same level to perform different powers. Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can have unlimited power. Each organ checks the others. This results in a balance of power among various institutions. This arrangement is called a system of checks and balances.
      ii.            Power can be shared among governments at different levels – also termed as vertical division of power, power shared among central, state & local government.
    iii.            Among different social groups - among religious & linguistic (बहुभाषा-संबंधी) groups, socially weaker sections and women are represented in the legislatures & administration. 
     iv.            Power can be shared among political parties, pressure groups & movements (आन्दोलन) like coalition government.

   


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