Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution class 9 History








Class 9, Chapter 2
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Capitalism is a social and economic system based on private ownership of the means of the production (Farm land, Factory) and free market system of trade, their operation is for profit
Population collectively owns and controls means of production. The distribution of results is proportional (बराबर).
Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives
1.      Liberals wanted a nation which supported all religions (धर्म) & wanted a changed society.
2.      Liberals also opposed (विरोध करना) the uncontrolled power of dynastic (राजवंशीय) rulers.
3.      They wanted representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.
4.      They did not believe in universal adult franchise, i.e. the right of every citizen to vote.
5.      They wanted that rights should be given to those men who has property
6.      They also did not want the vote for women.
1.      They wanted a government based on the majority population.
2.      They opposed the privileges (विशेषाधिकार) of landowners and factory owners.
3.      They were not against the existence of private property.
1.      They opposed (विरोध करना) to radicals and liberals.
2.      Earlier, they opposed to change in the society.
3.      But in the 19th century, they accepted that some change was necessary but believed that the past had to be respected and change would be a slow process.
Industrial Society and Social Change
1.      Industrial Revolution (क्रांति) led to changes in social and economic life
2.      Many new cities were grown and new industrialised regions developed.
3.      Due to industrialisation men, women and children all started to work in factories.
4.      At this time, working hours were long and wages (तनख़्वाह) were poor.
5.      There was unemployment (बेरोजगारी) during the time of low demand for industrial goods.
6.      Liberals and radicals made wealth through trade or industrial ventures.
7.      According to them, society can be developed if freedom of individuals was ensured, if the poor could labour, and those with capital could operate their business without restriction (प्रतिबन्ध).
8.      In France, Italy, Germany and Russia, revolutionaries overthrew (तख्ता पलट देना) existing monarchs.
9.      Nationalists (liberals and radicals) talked of revolutions to create ‘nations’ with equal rights.
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The Coming of Socialism to Europe
1.      Socialism (समाजवाद) introduced in the mid 19th century in Europe.
2.      Socialists were against private property which was not good for them.
3.      They argued that many people had private properties & provide livelihood (रोजगार) to others but the problems was that they thought only their profits.
4.      They wanted to change it and campaigned for it.
5.      Robert Owen (1771-1858) tried to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA).
6.      Louis Blanc (1813-1882) wanted the government to encourage cooperatives (मिल कर काम करने वाला) and replace capitalist (पूँजीपति) enterprises.
7.      In cooperatives, group of people worked together and divided the profits according to the work done by them.
8.      Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) added other ideas to this body of arguments.
9.      According to Marx industrial society was ‘capitalist’ who owned the capital invested in factories and the profit of capitalists was produced by workers.
10.  Capitalism and the rule of private property were overthrown then the condition of the workers could be improved.
11.  Marx believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation (शोषण), workers had to construct a socialist society where all property was socially controlled.
12.  It named a communist society.
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Support for Socialism
1.      By the 1870s, socialist ideas spread through Europe and they formed an international body – namely, the Second International.
2.      Associations were formed by workers in Germany and England to fight for better living and working conditions.
3.      The Labour Party (in Britain) and Socialist Party (in France) were formed by socialists and trade unionists, by 1905.
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The Russian Revolution
1.      Socialists took over (क़ब्ज़ा कर लेना) the government in Russia through the October Revolution of 1917.
2.      The fall of monarchy (राज-तंत्र) in February 1917 and the events of October are normally called the Russian Revolution.
The Russian Empire in 1914
1.      In 1914, Tsar Nicholas II ruled Russia and its empire.
2.      Its territory was Moscow, the Russian empire, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Ukraine and Belarus & stretched to the Central Asian states, as well as Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
3.      The majority religion was Russian Orthodox (कट्टरपंथी) Christianity along with it Catholics, Protestants, Muslims and Buddhists.


Economy and Society
1.      85 % of the Russian empire’s population depends upon the agriculture & major exporter of grain.
2.      Whereas in France and Germany the proportion that depends on agriculture was between 40 – 50 %.
3.      Along with agriculture large factories & craft workshops were also there.
4.      The industrial areas were in St Petersburg and Moscow.
5.      With the expansion of Russian railway network, industry, Coal production, iron and steel production also increased.
6.      In Russia, peasants wanted the land of the nobles to be given to them.
7.      Frequently (अक्सर), they refused to pay rent and even murdered landlords.
8.      In 1902, this occurred on a large scale in south Russia.
9.      And in 1905, such incidents took place all over Russia.
Socialism in Russia
1.      Socialists formed the Socialist Revolutionary Party in 1900.
2.      This party struggled for peasants’ rights and demanded that land belonging to nobles be transferred to peasants.
3.      Social Democrats disagreed with Socialist Revolutionaries about peasants.
4.      Lenin felt that peasants (किसान) were not one united group.
5.      Some were poor and others rich, some worked as labourers while others were capitalists who employed workers.
6.      The party was divided into two groups – Bolshevik (means majority) & Mensheviks [means minority] group.
A Turbulent (उथल-पुथल) Time: The 1905 Revolution
1.      The Russo-Japanese War was fought during 1904 and 1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan.
2.      Due to this, Prices of essential goods increased & wages (तनख़्वाह) decreased by 20 %.
3.      In 1904, four members of the Assembly of Russian Workers were dismissed at the Putilov Iron Works.
4.      Over the next few days over 110,000 workers in St Petersburg went on strike demanding a reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.
5.      It was led by Father Gapon at the Winter Palace then police attacked.
6.      Over 100 workers were killed and about 300 wounded (ज़ख़्मी).
7.      The incident is known as Bloody Sunday
8.      It is also known as the 1905 Revolution.
9.      Strikes (हड़ताल) took place all over the country & people demanded a constituent assembly.
10.  Tsar allowed to creation of an elected consultative Parliament or Duma.
11.  The Tsar dismissed the first Duma within 75 days.
12.  Second was re-elected within three months.
13.  1906-11, peter Stolypin became Prime minister & did many lands reforms & became popular in people & later assassinated (हत्या करना).
14.  He changed the voting laws and formed the third Duma with conservative politicians.
The First World War and the Russian Empire
1.       In 1914, war broke out (शुरू होना) between two European alliances – Germany, Austria and Turkey (the Central powers) and France, Britain, USA (1917-18), Japan and Russia (later Italy and Romania) (the allied power).
2.       It was called the First World War.
3.       St Petersburg name was changed to Petrograd because St Petersburg was a German name & when USSR disintegrates (विघटित हो जाना) in 1991, its name again changed to St Petersburg.
4.       The Tsarina Alexandra’s German origins and poor advisers, especially Rasputin, made the autocracy (एकतंत्र) unpopular.
5.       Russia’s armies lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916.
6.       There were 20 lakh soldiers & 80 lakh civilians died till 1917.
7.       Russian army destroyed crops and buildings to prevent the enemy from being able to live there.
8.       Due to this situation, people were not believed the government and the Tsar.

The February Revolution in Petrograd
1.       In February 1917, food shortages (कमी) & huge economic crisis (संकट) occurred.
2.       In Russia, revolution of 1917 occurred in two phases.
3.       Phase I – February (Julian calendar) & March (Gregorian calendar)
4.       Phase II – October (Julian calendar) & November (Gregorian calendar)
5.       There is a 12 days difference between Julian & Gregorian calendar.
6.       On 22 February, a lockout took place at one of the factories.
7.       The next day, workers in fifty factories also called a strike in sympathy (हमदर्दी).
8.       In many factories, women led to strikes (हड़ताल).
9.       This came to be called the International Women’s Day.
10.   Public protests spread all over the country.
11.   Military commanders advised Tsar to abdicate (पद त्याग करना).
12.   Tsar Nicholas told to his brother Michael to become Tsar but he denied (इन्कार करना).
13.   At last, he followed their advice and abdicated on 2 March.
14.   Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country.
15.   Russia’s future would be decided by a constituent assembly, elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage.
16.   Petrograd had led the February Revolution that brought down the monarchy in February 1917.

After February
1.       Liberals & socialists worked towards an elected government.
2.       Restrictions (प्रतिबन्ध) on public meetings and associations (सभा) were removed.
3.       They did two mistakes i.e. they did not hold elections as they said and didn’t withdraw from world war 1.
4.       In April 1917, the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia from his exile (देश-निष्कासन).
5.       He and the Bolsheviks had opposed (विरोध करना) the war since 1914 & felt to take over the power.
6.       He declared that the war is brought to a close, land be transferred to the peasants, and banks be nationalised.
7.       These three demands were Lenin’s ‘April Theses’.
8.       Through the summer the workers’ movement spread (फैलना).
9.       In industrial areas, factory committees were formed which began questioning the way industrialists ran their factories.
10.   As the Provisional Government saw its power reduce and Bolshevik influence grow, it decided to take quick action against the spreading discontent (असंतोष).
11.   It resisted (रोकना) attempts by workers to run factories and began arresting leaders.
12.   Popular demonstrations (प्रदर्शन) staged by the Bolsheviks in July 1917 were sternly (कठोरता से) repressed (दबाना).
13.   Many Bolshevik leaders had to go into hiding or flee (भागना).
The Revolution of October 1917
1.       In September, Bolshevik supporters in the army, soviets and factories were brought together.
2.       On 16 October 1917, Lenin persuaded (विश्वास दिलाना) the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to capture the power.
3.       The uprising (विद्रोह) began on 24 October.
4.       Prime Minister Kerenskii had left the city to summon (इकट्ठा करना) troops (सेना).
5.       Pro-government troops were sent to take over (कब्ज़ा कर लेना) telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace.
6.       In response, the Military Revolutionary Committee ordered its supporters to capture government offices and arrest ministers.
7.       By nightfall, the city was under the committee’s control and the ministers had surrendered.
8.       This Revolution is called October revolution or bloodless revolution.
What Changed after October?
1.       The Bolsheviks were totally opposed to private property.
2.       This meant that the government took over ownership and management.
3.       Land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize (ज़ब्त करना) the land of the nobility.
4.       The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party.
5.       In November 1917, the Bolsheviks conducted the elections but they failed to gain majority support.
6.       In January 1918, the Assembly rejected Bolshevik measures and Lenin dismissed the Assembly.
7.       In March 1918, the Bolsheviks made alliance (संधि) with Germany at Brest Litovsk.
8.       Bolsheviks became the only party to participate in the elections & became the Parliament of the country.
9.       Trade unions were kept under party control.
10.   The secret police punished those who criticised (आलोचना करना) the Bolsheviks.
11.   Many young writers and artists are attracted towards the Party because they wanted socialism and change.
The Civil War
1.       Russian civil war occurred between Red vs Whites from 1917 to 1922 & 20 to 30 lakh casualties (जनहानि).
2.       Whites were formed of supporters of monarchy, landlords, Aristocrats (उच्चकुलीन or अमीर), Church/clergy & Mensheviks.
3.       They are supported by UK, France and USA because they were against socialism.
4.       Their leaders organised troops to fight the Bolsheviks (the ‘reds’).
5.       During 1918 and 1919, ‘whites’ (pro-Tsarists) controlled most of the Russian empire.
6.       As these troops and the Bolsheviks fought a civil war, looting, banditry (डाका) and famine (भुखमरी) became common.
7.       Supporters of private property among ‘whites’ took harsh (कठोर) steps with peasants who had seized (कब्जा करना) land.
8.       Such actions led to the loss of popular support for the non-Bolsheviks.
9.       By January 1920, the Bolsheviks controlled most of the former Russian empire.
10.   Finally, USSR created from the Russian empire in December 1922 with Lenin as the 1st premier (प्रधान).
Impact
1.       End of the monarchy in one of the largest empires.
2.       Communism (साम्यवाद or सब वस्तुओं में सबका समानाधिकार रखने का सिद्धान्त) found its practical shape (first country, then china, north Korea, Cuba also adopted communism).
3.       Nationalisation of all resources.
4.       Abolition (समाप्ति) of Private property.
5.       Command economy (manufacturing from pin to car all were made by the government)
6.       Unique features launched like 5-year plans in 1928 (India also adopted it in 1952).

7.       First revolution to establish true equality (Everyone treated equally with giving equal rights without any discrimination).


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