Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution class 9 History








Class 9, Chapter 2
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Capitalism is a social and economic system based on private ownership of the means of the production (Farm land, Factory) and free market system of trade, their operation is for profit
Population collectively owns and controls means of production. The distribution of results is proportional (बराबर).
Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives
1.      Liberals wanted a nation which supported all religions (धर्म) & wanted a changed society.
2.      Liberals also opposed (विरोध करना) the uncontrolled power of dynastic (राजवंशीय) rulers.
3.      They wanted representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.
4.      They did not believe in universal adult franchise, i.e. the right of every citizen to vote.
5.      They wanted that rights should be given to those men who has property
6.      They also did not want the vote for women.
1.      They wanted a government based on the majority population.
2.      They opposed the privileges (विशेषाधिकार) of landowners and factory owners.
3.      They were not against the existence of private property.
1.      They opposed (विरोध करना) to radicals and liberals.
2.      Earlier, they opposed to change in the society.
3.      But in the 19th century, they accepted that some change was necessary but believed that the past had to be respected and change would be a slow process.
Industrial Society and Social Change
1.      Industrial Revolution (क्रांति) led to changes in social and economic life
2.      Many new cities were grown and new industrialised regions developed.
3.      Due to industrialisation men, women and children all started to work in factories.
4.      At this time, working hours were long and wages (तनख़्वाह) were poor.
5.      There was unemployment (बेरोजगारी) during the time of low demand for industrial goods.
6.      Liberals and radicals made wealth through trade or industrial ventures.
7.      According to them, society can be developed if freedom of individuals was ensured, if the poor could labour, and those with capital could operate their business without restriction (प्रतिबन्ध).
8.      In France, ...

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