Chapter – 2
People as Resource
1. People having some skills & knowledge in any field who can do some productive work in that field are called Human capital.
2. In it, they need some investment like education, training and medical care.
3. If we think that it creates problems to provide the huge population with food, education and access to health facilities.
4. But we should also see its positive aspect (रूप) that if we provide more education and health facilities to large section of population then more it will be developed, it is called 'human capital formation'.
5. Investment in human resource (via [के द्वारा] education and medical care) can give high rates of return in future.
6. E.g. Green Revolution is a best example of how the input of greater knowledge in the form of improved production technologies can rapidly increase the productivity of land resources.
1. These are those activities which add value to the national income.
2. It creates production of goods and services are called economic activities.
3. These activities have been classified into three main sectors i.e., primary, secondary and tertiary.
4. Primary sector – It includes agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry (मुर्गीपालन) farming, mining and quarrying.
5. Secondary sector – It includes manufacturing
6. Tertiary sector – It includes trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, services, insurance, etc.
7. Economic activities have two parts — market activities and non-market activities.
8. Market activities –The main motive of doing such activities is to earn profit by selling the output in the market. E.g. production of goods or services, government service, business etc.
9. Non-market activities – These are those activities which do not include any financial transactions and done without any intention (उद्देश्य) of earning money or profit. E.g. household work done by a housewife, crops grown by a farmer for his own family, tutions given by a teacher to his own child etc
Quality of Population
The quality of population depends upon the literacy (पढ़ने लिखने की योग्यता) rate, health of a person & it decides the growth rate of the country.
1. It is an important input for the growth in the life.
2. If you will invest in education now, you will get more success in life, in the form of better job, high salary, better health care facilities, high status in society etc.
Efforts by the government in education
1. Government established schools like Navodaya Vidyalaya in each district mainly emphasis (जोर देना) on girls.
2. Vocational (व्यवसायिक) streams have been developed to give large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.
3. The expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP rose from 0.64% in 1951–52 to 3.0% in 2015–16 & constant around 3% from past few years.
4. The literacy rates have increased from 18% in 1951 to 74% in 2010-11.
5. Literacy among males is nearly 16.6% higher than females and it is about 16.1% higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas.
6. In 2011, literacy rates varied from 94% in Kerala to 62% in Bihar.
7. Sarva Siksha Abhiyan has been started to provide elementary education to all children in the age group of 6–14 years.
8. Mid-day meal scheme has also started for the complete attendance of children and improve their nutritional status.
9. Gross Enrolment (नाम दर्ज करना) Ratio (GER) in higher education in the age group of 18 to 23 years to 25.2% by 2017–18 and to reach the target of 30% by 2020–21.
1. The health of a person helps him to realise his potential (सामर्थ्य) and the ability to fight illness (बीमारी).
2. If someone is not healthy, he will not be able to maximise his output to the overall growth of the organisation.
3. Henceforth (इसके बाद से), improvement in the health status of the population has been the first priority (प्राथमिकता) of the country.
4. Our national policy, too, aims at improving the accessibility of healthcare, family welfare and nutritional service.
5. More hospitals & clinics are opened in Urban as well as rural areas.
6. Free health check ups & campaigns are run by the government.
7. These measures have been adopted; have increased the life expectancy (जीवन काल) to over 68.3 years in 2014.
8. Infant mortality rate (शिशु मृत्यु दर) (IMR) [It is the death of a child below one year of age] has come down from 147 in 1951 to 34 in 2016.
9. Crude birth rates (अशोधित जन्म दर) (number of babies born for every 1,000 people during a particular period of time) have dropped to 20.4
10. Death rates (number of people per 1,000 who die during a particular period of time) to 6.4 within the same duration of time.
1. People who are willing to work at the going wages (वेतन) and cannot find jobs are called unemployment.
2. If there is a woman & she is housewife and she does not want to work outside, so she cannot be called unemployed.
3. The workforce population includes people from 15 – 59 years.
4. It is divided into three types – seasonal, disguised and educated unemployment.
1. This unemployment happens in rural
2. Those people who are not able to find jobs during some months of the year.
3. People dependent upon agriculture usually face such kind of problem in some months (usually 3–4 months).
4. There are certain busy seasons when sowing (बीजों की बुआई), harvesting (फसल कटाई), weeding (छँटाई करना) and threshing (separation of grain from the husks) is done.
1. This unemployment happens in rural
2. Unemployed people appear to be employed are called disguised (छिपाया हुआ) unemployment.
3. E.g. People are working in agricultural plot, if work requires the service of five people but engages eight people. Three people are extra & these three extra people are disguised unemployed.
1. It is common in urban areas.
2. Many youths with matriculation, graduation and post-graduation degrees are not able to find job.
3. This is called educated unemployment.
Effects of Unemployment
1. Unemployment leads to wastage of manpower resource & people who are an asset (useful or valuable quality) for the economy turn into a liability (quality of being something that holds you back).
3. The dependence of the unemployed on the working population increases.
4. The quality of life of an individual as well as of society is adversely affected.
5. Due to unemployment, crime increases.
6. They are forced to do work which they do not like or have any choice
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